THIS IS ANOTHER ASPECT OF OUR FRENCH TIREL HISTORY - I FIND IT MOST INTERESTING - jUST KEEP READING AFTER THE LINEAGE FOR SOME REALLY GREAT STORIES - \
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN ON THE ARROW AT THE BOTTOM LEFT

Descendants of Sire de Tirel & Poix Ralf
1 Sire de Tirel & Poix Ralf 950 -
.... +daughter of Gueranville
2 Fulk de Tirel
..... +Lady Orielda
3 Walter de Tirel (Sir) born 1015; died 1084 – rode with William the Conqueror
...... +Lady of Fromontieries & heiress of Richard Olga
. 4 Walter II de Tirel 1040 -
....... +Ann de Clare
.. 5 Walter III de Tirel (Sir) 1060 - 1136
........ +Adelaide Giffard
... 6 Hugh Tirel (Sir) Lord of Poix - 1159
......... +Ada dD'Aumale
.... 7 Hugh Tyrel II (Sir) 1140 - 1199
.......... +Marie de Senarport
..... 8 Roger Avon Tyrell 1175 -
...... 9 Edward Avon Tyrrell 1210 -
........ 10 Galfrid AvonTyrell 1250 -
......... 11 Edmond Tyrell 1280 -
............... +Jane Suffolk
.......... 12 Hugh Tyrell (Sir) 1310 -
................ +Jane Flambert
........... 13 James Tyrell 1290
................. +Margaret Heron 1290 -
............ 14 Walter Heron Tyrell 1350 -
.................. +Anna Swynford 1324 -
............. 15 Thomas Heron Tyrell 1370 - 1406
................... +Eleanor Flambard 1345 - 1422
.............. 16 John Heron Tyrrell 1390 - 1437
.................... +Alice de Coggeshell 1382 - 1422
............... 17 Thomas Tyrrell (Sir)
..................... +Emma (Anne) Marney 1410 -
................. 18 Thomas Ockedonn Tyrell 1430 - 1490
....................... +Elizabeth Le Brun 1430 - 1473
.................. 19 William Tyrrell (Sir) 1465 -
........................ +Elizabeth Bodley
................... 20 Humphry Thornton Tyrrell 1490 - 1547/48
......................... +Jane Ingleton 1498 -
.................... 21 George Thornton Tyrrell 1530 - 1571
.......................... +Eleanor Elizabeth Montague 1530 -
..................... 22 William Tyrrell 1552 - 1595
........................... +Margaret Richmond 1560 -
...................... 23 Robert Tyrrell 1585 - 1643
............................ +Jane Baldwin 1590 - 1661
....................... 24 Richmond Tyrrell
............................. +Martha Williams
........................ 25 Timothy Tyrrell 1658 -
.............................. +Elizabeth Foster
......................... 26 Joseph Terrell 1699 - 1775
............................... +Mary
........................... 27 Joseph Terrell, Jr. 1744/45 - 1787
................................. +Elizabeth Mills 1744/45 - 1833
............................ 28 David Terrell 1782 - 1819
.................................. +Mary Henley Thompson - 1871
............................. 29 Mary Garland Terrell
................................... +John Hendricks
............................. 29 [5] Ann Terrell 1817 - 1880
................................... +[4] Joseph Carr Terrell 1807 - 1864
.............................. 30 [6] Charles Thomas Washington Terrell 1852 - 1923
.................................... +[7] Frances Pierce McGeHee 1852 - 1929
............................... 31 [8] Earley Thomas Terrell 1882 - 1967
..................................... +[9] Ophelia Louise Harris 1884 - 1968
................................ 32 [10] James Emmett Terrell 1911 - 1967
...................................... +[11] Nannie Belle Clendenin 1910 - 1972
................................. 33 [12] Nancy Terrell 1940 -
....................................... +[13] M.F. "Bud" Longnecker (Dr.) 1936 -
.................................. 34 [14] Michael Emmett Longnecker 1964 -
........................................ +[15] Tina Hilty 1961 -
.................................... 35 [16] Taylor Hilty Longnecker 1989 -
.................................. 34 [17] Gregory Stuart Longnecker 1966 -
........................................ +[18] Helen Hernandez 1965 -
2
.................................... 35 [1] Lauren Elizabeth Longnecker 1988 -
.................................... 35 [2] Christian Terrell Longnecker 1996 -
.................................... 35 [3] Hannah Marie Longnecker 1997 -
.................................. *2nd Wife of [17] Gregory Stuart Longnecker:
........................................ +[19] Stacy Marie Weinkel 1977 -
.................................... 35 [1] Lauren Elizabeth Longnecker 1988 -
.................................... 35 [2] Christian Terrell Longnecker 1996 -
.................................... 35 [3] Hannah Marie Longnecker 1997 -
................................. 33 [20] James Emmett Terrell, Jr. 1944 –

HISTORY INVOLVING THE FRENCH TIRELS
Descendants of Guillaume "Longue Epee"
In about 1026, Herleva of Falaise was born in 1010. Herleva was the daughter of Fulbert, a tanner in Falaise. When she was sixteen years old she gave birth to a son called Richard. The boy's father was Gilbert, Count of Brionne, one of the most powerful landowners in Normandy. As Herleva was not married to Gilbert, the boy became known as Richard Fitz Gilbert. The term 'Fitz' was used to show that Richard was the illegitimate son of Gilbert. The following year Robert, Duke of Normandy fell in love with this beautiful girl. Soon after their first meeting, Robert sent a message to Herleva asking her to meet him at his castle at Brionne. Within a year a little boy was born. He was given the name William. Many years later, the citizens in a town besieged by William made fun of him by hanging out animal skins over the city walls and the, Herleva became the mistress of Robert, Duke of Normandy. In 1028, Herleva and Robert had a son who eventually became known as William, Duke of Normandy. Instead of marrying Herleva, Robert persuaded her to marry his friend, Herluin of Conteville. After marriage, Herleva had three more children, Odo, Robert and Muriel. Later the sons became known as Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain.
In 1035, Robert, Duke of Normandy died. Although William was illegitimate, he was Robert's only living son, and so inherited his father's title. Gilbert, Count of Brionne, became William's guardian. A number of Norman barons would not accept an illegitimate son as their leader and in 1040 an attempt was made to kill William. The plot failed but they did manage to kill Gilbert of Brionne. A number of Norman barons would not accept an illegitimate son as their leader and in 1040 an attempt was made to kill William. The plot failed but they did manage to kill Gilbert of Brionne. As Richard was illegitimate, he did not receive very much land when his father died. Gilbert of Brionne's large estates in Normandy were now passed on to his legitimate son, Baldwin of Flanders. As Richard Fitz Gilbert was illegitimate, he did not receive very much land when his father died.
Richard married Rohese, daughter of Walter Giffard of Normandy. The couple had at least three children, Rohaise, Gilbert de Clare and Walter of Clare When William of Normandy, decided to invade England in 1066, he invited his three half-brothers, Richard Fitz Gilbert, Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain to join him. Richard, who had married Rohese, daughter of Walter Giffard of Normandy, also brought with him members of his wife's family.
 
After his coronation in 1066, William the Conqueror claimed that all the land in England now belonged to him. William retained about a fifth of this land for his own use. The rest was distributed to those men who had helped him defeat Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
Richard Fitz Gilbert, was granted land in Kent, Essex, Surrey, Suffolk and Norfolk. In exchange for this land. Richard had to promise to provide the king with sixty knights. In order to supply these knights, barons divided their land up into smaller units called manors. These manors were then passed on to men who promised to serve as knights when the king needed them.
Richard built castles at Tonbridge (Kent), Clare (Suffolk), Bletchingley (Surrey) and Hanley (Worcester). His knights normally lived in the manor that they had been granted. Once or twice a year, Richard would visit his knights to check the manor accounts and to collect the profits that the land had made.
The Normans were very impressed with Richard's castle at Tonbridge. After a while people in Kent began calling him Richard of Tonbridge. Other people called him Richard of Clare, after the castle and large estates he owned in Clare in Suffolk. In time, Richard adopted Clare as his family name and he became known as Richard de Clare.
William the Conqueror trusted Richard de Clare and appointed him as a member of his ruling council. Richard was also given the title Chief Justiciar. This meant that Richard took over the running of the government when the king was making one of his many visits to Normandy. In this post he played an important role in the suppression of the revolt against William in 1075.
Just before William the Conqueror died he decided that William Rufus, rather than his older brother, Robert Curthose, should be king of England. He was crowned by Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on 26th September, 1087.
The following year some Normans, including Richard de Clare, Odo of Bayeux, Robert of Mortain, William Fitz Osbern and Geoffrey of Coutances, led a rebellion against the rule of Rufus in order to place Robert Curthose on the throne. However most Normans in England remained loyal and Rufus and his army successfully attacked the rebel strongholds at Tonbridge, Pevensey and Rochester.
After a two day siege at Tonbridge Castle, Richard de Clare was forced to surrender to William Rufus. Richard was punished by having his castle and the town of Tonbridge burnt to the ground. Richard de Clare was also forced to live in a monastery where he died three years later. His land was inherited by his son, Gilbert de Clare.
 

William I of England – William the Conqueror
 
 
 
William I, known as William the Conqueror, was king of England from 1066 to 1087. His reign changed the course of history in the Western world. As he was raised in the Norman Court in France, he took the French language with him when he invaded England. Therefore, most of our English language, as we know it, is based on French and therefore, Latin.
As king, William reorganized the feudal system, making all landholders swear greater loyalty to him rather than to their separate lords. William also ordered an exhaustive survey of the landed wealth in his realm. The written results, known as the Domesday Book, helped determine the revenues owed him by his subjects.
Born in Falaise, France, William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, and Arletta, a tanner’s daughter, and is therefore sometimes called William the Bastard. Upon the death of his father, the Norman nobles, honoring their promise to Robert, accepted William as his successor. Rebellion against the young duke broke out almost immediately, however, and his position did not become secure until 1047 when, with the aid of Henry I, king of France, he won a decisive victory over a rebel force near Caen.
During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, king of England, William is said to have obtained Edward’s agreement that he should succeed to the English throne. In 1053, defying a papal ban, William married Matilda of Flanders, daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders and a descendant of King Alfred the Great, thereby strengthening his claim to the crown of England. Henry I, fearing the strong bond between Normandy (Normandie) and Flanders resulting from the marriage, attempted in 1054 and again in 1058 to crush the powerful duke, but on both occasions William defeated the French king’s forces.
Conquest of England - About 1064, the powerful English noble, Harold, earl of Wessex, was shipwrecked on the Norman coast and taken prisoner by William. He secured his release by swearing to support William’s claim to the English throne. When King Edward died, however, the English Royal Council elected Harold king. Determined to make good his claim, William secured the sanction of Pope Alexander II for a Norman invasion of England. The duke and his army landed at Pevensey on September 28, 1066. On October 14, the Normans defeated the English forces at the celebrated Battle of Hastings, in which Harold was slain. William then proceeded to London, crushing the resistance he encountered on the way. On Christmas Day he was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey.
The English did not accept foreign rule without a struggle. William met the opposition, which was particularly violent in the north and west, with strong measures; he was responsible for the devastation of great areas of the country, particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces had arrived to aid the Saxon rebels. By 1070 the Norman conquest of England was complete.
William invaded Scotland in 1072 and forced the Scottish king Malcolm III MacDuncan to pay him homage. During the succeeding years the Conqueror crushed insurrections among his Norman followers, including that incited in 1075 by Ralph de Guader, 1st earl of Norfolk, and Roger Fitzwilliam, earl of Hereford, and a series of uprisings in Normandy led by his eldest son Robert, who later became Robert II, duke of Normandy.
His Achievements
 
Domesday Book
 
One feature of William’s reign as king was his reorganization of the English feudal and administrative systems. He dissolved the great earldoms, which had enjoyed virtual independence under his Anglo-Saxon predecessors, and distributed the lands confiscated from the English to his trusted Norman followers. He introduced the Continental system of feudalism; by the Oath of Salisbury of 1086 all landlords swore allegiance to William, thus establishing the precedent that a vassal’s loyalty to the king overrode his fealty to his immediate lord. The feudal lords were compelled to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the local courts, which William retained along with many other Anglo-Saxon institutions. The ecclesiastical and secular courts were separated, and the power of the papacy in English affairs was greatly curtailed. Another outstanding accomplishment was the economic survey undertaken and incorporated in the Domesday Book in 1086.
In 1087, during a campaign against King Philip I of France, William burned the town of Mantes (now Mantes-la-Jolie). William’s horse fell in the vicinity of Mantes, fatally injuring him. He died in Rouen on September 7 and was buried at Caen in Saint Stephen’s, one of the abbeys he and Matilda had founded at the time of their marriage as penance for their defiance of the pope. William was succeeded by his third-born son, William II.
GENERATIONS FROM WALTER de TIREL TO TAYLOR AND LAUREN LONGNECKER
The name Tyrrell (Tyrell or Tirel) is of French origin from Poix in Picardy, North West France. The name is said to be derived from 'Tires' meaning 'obstinate, stubborn'. It could also have originated from the Franks who immigrated to France from the Mesopotamian Valley and a most ancient city named Tyre.
1. WALTER de TIREL – 2nd Lord of Poix (Born 1015 died 1084)
 

Baron Walter I de Tirel was the second Lord of Poix, Castellan, of Pontoise. He was also a Viscount of Amiens and a Baron of both France and England. He built castles in both Poix and Famechon in 1046 and he was a close friend of William the Conquerors and accompanied him in the conquest of England and participated in the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

 HISTORY OF NORMANDY

* Normandy is a province of the ancient France, situated between Brittany and Picardie, and today shared between the High-Normandy to the east and Low-Normandy westward.* The region situated around the valley of Seine, very ancient commercial axis, were populated by many Gallic tribes. In 56 before J-C, the victory of Cesar allowed their incorporation to the province of Lyon. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Normandy belonged to the kingdom of Syagrius, then to the Neustrie.
Very early christianized (3rd century), Normandy gave birth to many abbeys and monasteries during the old Middle-ages, like Jumieges or the Mont Saint-Michel.
 
The province received its historical identity during the invasions of the Normans (Danish, Norwegians), that gave it their name. In 911, by the treaty of Saint-Clair sur Epte, the king of France Charles the Simple, to avoid disturbances, decided to give them the country, in exchange for accepting leadership of the French king. He negotiated with their chief Rollo that had to be baptized, on the region of Rouen, Normandy then constituting in dukedom. The dukedom spread to the west, and its Scandinavian population integrated gradually to the Frank world.
The duke Richard 1st pushed the accession of Capetiens to the throne of France (987). In the 10th and 11th centuries, the dukes led a centralization and conquest policy (momentary sovereignty on Brittany and in 1031, on the French Vexin), by leaning on the economic prosperity of the region and on the Church, reformed by Cluny.
After their settlement in the dukedom, the Normans came back to new expeditions and adventures, to realize new conquests: expedition against Moorish in Spain, to Jerusalem during Catholics crusades, foundation of the Two-Sicilian kingdoms, in the beginning of the 12th century. The most important event was the conquest of England by William, sixth duke of Normandy, successor of Rollo. He became king of England owning to the battle of Hastings, in 1066. Even if he was the English king, he was still depending on the French royalty for the dukedom of Normandy. Its victory of 1066 was illustrated by the tapestry of the queen Mathilde, today preserved in Bayeux. Capetiens worried rapidly about the boom of this powerful principality, whose chief was both king of England and vassal of the king of France. From 1087, to the death of William, they favored divisions between its descendants. On the favour of these struggles, the dukedom passed in 1144 between hands of the count of Anjou Geoffroi 5th Plantagenet. His son Henri married Eleanor of Aquitaine when the King Louis 7th had repudiated it, and become king of England under the name of Henry 2nd. He reorganized finances of its immense «Empire Angevin».
 

The conquest of England by William the Conqueror is one of the most famous expeditions Europe has ever known. And the Tapestry of Bayeux is one of the most priceless weavings in history. The Tapestry of Bayeux presents the circumstances of the expedition in England. It finishes with a beautiful evocation of the battle of Hastings, which won William, then king of England (1066).
Witness of the 11th century rhythms of life, it offers to all the visitors an historical piece of art. The Tapestry is made up of eight strips of linen, varying in height and stretching 230 metres from the opening scene of Edward the Confessor to a frayed and premature ending depicting the English in flight after Hastings. In fact to call it a Tapestry is a misnomer as the episodes are recounted by means of woollen embroidery, using five principal colours which would appear to have suffered very little fading, as the colours on the back of the linen have an almost identical depth of tone to those on the front. These colours are not intended to be seen naturalistically (the horses are often rendered in a deep blue for instance), but are capable of endowing the scenes with an extraordinarily vivid sense of pace and movement. The main narrative takes place in a broad central strip, fringed by two borders which punctuate the events with ornaments, fables and sub-plots, and often comment on the story in an allusive and wry voice. The tale itself is well known, but it is precisely because our perception of the events of 1066 owes much to the Tapestry. As a historical source its portrayal of Harold in Normandy during 1064, William’s initiatives to claim the throne of England, and the Battle of Hastings, adds enormously to what is known via the contemporary history. As an object it has few parallels and is the only large-scale wall hanging from the period to have survived, though both its date and provenance are open the question. The Tapestry was in Bayeux in 1476 when it is mentioned in a cathedral inventory, and by the 18th had become popularly attributed to William`s wife, Queen Mathilda. Modern scholarship favours Odo de Conteville, William`s half-brother and the Bishop of Bayeux, as patron. Baron Walter de Tirel is pictured in the tapestry although we have no way of knowing exactly which Norman fighter he was.

**This information is based on 57 additional generations going back located in "Terrell Genealogy" by Dicken. It is based largely on charts from J. H. Tyrrell of London." Baron WALTER I TIREL 2nd Lord of Poix. .

Baron Walter de Tirel, 2nd Lord of Poix married Olga Fromontieries
1. +WALTER II TIREL
Sources (S – 1503)
[Ancestry.com gedcoms h8816. Submitters: EMail hpowers@i2020.net. http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/t/y/s/Kathleen-Tyson/W EBSITE-0001/UHP-0359.html EMail: katheetyson@yahoo.com Adams Hearne Braden Ross Griffith Lumpkin Carter Fontaine & Many More Updated: Mon Feb 4 2002 Contact: Barbara Anne Hearne EMAIL: gardenNgranny409@aol.com
2. WALTER II TIREL born in 1040 - died after 1069
Walter and Olga’s son Walter Tirel II was born in France before his father left with William the Conqueror. His mother, Olga, was heir to a Saxon estate. After his father fought the English in 1066, Walter and his mother, Olga, with their brothers and sisters, moved to England. They settled in the New Forest Area on the Southern coastline.

Family 1 : ANN de CLARE Walter II married Ann de Clare who came from one of the most famous families in history. The name de Clare gradually changed into Sinclair, of the famous Sinclair family of Scotland. Rosalyn Chapel in Scotland is owned by the Sinclair family. It was built by the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, Henri Sinclair, who came to North America and settled in Nova Scotia 100 years before Christopher Columbus.

ANN de CLARE was born in 1040 to Gunmore of Ainon (mother) and Gilbert Crispin of Clare who was the Earl of Eu. Ancestors of Ann de Clare are from Sweden and then Norway. They are listed below
HISTORY OF SWEDEN
During Roman times the eastern half of the Scandinavian Peninsula was inhabited by two tribes of the Germanic peoples: the Suiones, or Swedes, in northern Svealand; and the Gothones, or Goths, in southern Gothia. These tribes, although united in Celtic religious beliefs, were generally at war with each other. Before the 10th century, details of Swedish history are obscure. In the first half of the 9th century Frankish missionaries began teaching Christianity, which slowly became established in the country. Olaf Skötkonung was the first Swedish king to become a Christian. From about AD 800, Swedish Vikings established colonies in other countries, especially Russia and Eastern Europe, and established trade routes. The first Terrell ancestor that we can trace from Sweden is Rig Sverige who was born in 340AD
1 Rig SVERIGE 340 - Sweden
2 Drott Danpsson SVERIGE 361 - Sweden
..... +Domar Domaldsdotter
3 Dyggvi Domarsson SVERIGE 382 - Sweden
. 4 Dag Dyggvasson SVERIGE 403 - Sweden
.. 5 Agni Dagsson SVERIGE 424 -Sweden
........ +Skjalf Frostasdotter
... 6 Alrek Agnasson SVERIGE 445 - Sweden
......... +Dagrid Dagsdotter
.... 7 Yngvi Alreksson SVERIGE 465 - Sweden
..... 8 Jorund Yngvasson SVERIGE 487 - Sweden
....... 9 AUN Jorundsson SVERIGE 509 - Sweden
........ 10 EGIL Aunsson (Vendikrak) SVERIGE 530 - Sweden
......... 11 OTTAR Egilsson SVERIGE 551 - Sweden
.......... 12 Eystein Adilsson SVERIGE 572 - Sweden
................ +YRSA Helgasdotter
........... 13 Eystein Adilsson SVERIGE 594 - Sweden
............ 14 Ingvar Eysteinsson SVERIGE 616 - Sweden
............. 15 Braut-Onund Ingvarsson SVERIGE 636 - Sweden
............... 16 Ingjald III Braut-Onundsson SVERIGE 660 -Uppsala, Sweden; King Of Sweden
..................... +Gauthild Algautsdotter
HISTORY OF NORWAY - According to archaeological research, Norway was inhabited as early as 14,000 years ago by hunting people with a Palaeolithic culture derived from that of western and central Europe. Later, colonies of farming people from Denmark and Sweden were established in the region. These settlers spoke a Germanic language that became the mother tongue of the later Scandinavian languages. These new arrivals made their homes on the shores of the large lakes and along the jagged coast. Mountains and fjords formed natural boundaries around most of the settled areas. In time social life in the separate settlements came to be dominated by an aristocracy and, eventually, by petty kings. By the time of the first historical records of Scandinavia, about the 8th century AD, some 29 small kingdoms existed in Norway. Terrell ancestor Olaf I Ingjaldsson Sverige from Sweden invaded Norway and set himself up as King.
................ 17 Olaf I Ingjaldsson SVERIGE 682 – 710 of Vaermland, Sweden; King Of Norway
...................... +Solveig Halfdansdotter
................. 18 Halfdan I Olafsson SVERIGE 704 – 800 - conquored Vestfold - 1st King Of Vestfold
....................... +Asa Eysteinsdotter THRONDHEIM
.................. 19 Eystein Halfdansson SVERIGE 728 – 810 – King of Norway
........................ +Hilda Ericsdotter VESTFOLD
................... 20 Halfdan II Eysteinsson SVERIGE 745 – King of Norway
......................... +LIFA Dagsdotter
.................... 21 Ivar Halfdansson Rognvald SVERIGE 790 - born in Jutland, Norway
..................... 22 Eystein Ivarsson 810 - "The Rattle" SVERIGE Earl of Maer; Earl of the Upplanders
........................... +Aseda Rognvaldsdotter SVERIGE
....................... 23 Rognvald Eysteinsson 830 – 894 (The Wise) Earl of Maer
............................. +Ragnhild Hrolfsson Hilda NORGE
........................ 24 Rollo 854 - 930 - "The Dane" Robert I SVERIGE of Rouen Invaded France and took Normandy
.............................. +Poppa was kidnapped by Rollo – great story see notes

  Map of the routes the Vikings took into France where they settled in Normandy
 
 
The Vikings began to raid their southern neighbors seriously and systematically around 800. These raids, and the subsequent invasions, took many forms and reached out in many directions. In the British Isles and the French parts of the Carolingian Empire, there was a fairly uniform evolution; raids gradually changed from hit-and-run attacks to larger and more ambitious forays in which bands of sailor-raiders carved out holdings or base camps where they might spend the winter. Eventually, by the mid- to late 9th century, the armies grew in size. Many of the men became settlers in the lands where they had first appeared as marauders and raiders. They began to convert to Christianity and either brought families from home or intermarried with the local people. In such areas as northern England and Normandy (Normandie), on the coast of what is now France, the combination of peoples and cultures that resulted from these settlements led to a new mix of ethnic stocks, languages, and institutions. Because of their interest in commerce, the Vikings fostered urban growth, founding many cities and towns. Cities founded by the Vikings, such as York in England and Dublin in Ireland, emerged as prominent trade centers.
The motives for the Viking raids are not stated in any explicit or authoritative text. The wealth of the south, long known from trade and travel, was an obvious attraction. By the 8th or 9th centuries population growth was taxing Scandinavia’s limited resources for food, unclaimed land, and opportunities for social mobility and internal migration. Additionally, it is possible that the brutal wars conducted by Carolingian ruler Charlemagne against the Saxons in Germany in the 8th century may have warned the Northmen of a powerful enemy to the south.
These raids may also have been affected by political changes. The emergence in Scandinavia of more centralized monarchies and political institutions may have pushed many lesser chieftains and family leaders, long used to independence and self-reliance, to look for new frontiers. Thus many leaders of war bands took to the seas. When they went they were apt to take their men and families with them.
Around 800, Vikings raided the coasts of the British Isles and the western portions of the Carolingian Empire. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded their arrival: “In this year [793] the ravages of heathen men miserably destroyed God’s church on Lindisfarne [Holy Island, off the northeast coast of England], with plunder and slaughter.” The Vikings landed on undefended coasts and attacked churches as well as isolated farmsteads, town, and villages. Their well-constructed longboats could carry 50 or more men, and because of their very shallow draft, these boats were able to travel up rivers to settlements that had seemed immune to maritime attack. Sieges of and raids on Paris from the 840s onward show how deep into the heartland of continental Europe the Vikings could strike. Additionally, the Vikings conquered much of northern England (the Danelaw) in the 9th century, and they established a kingdom in Ireland. The Viking hold on such North Atlantic islands as the Shetlands, Hebrides, and Faroes lasted through and beyond the Middle Ages. However, even in their most predatory days the Vikings had not always been fierce raiders; often a fortified harbor or the presence of soldiers caused them to fall back on their role as traders and merchants.
Until the Viking raids began, Christian Europe had not worried about an enemy from the sea. It took the better part of a century before leaders like Alfred the Great of Wessex (England) and Charles II the Bald and Louis III in France could command their resources to move to fortify their towns, station fleets and naval patrols along the coasts, and organize localized and mobile military forces. Some Christian leaders paid ransom to the larger Viking armies of the 10th and early 11th centuries. Taxing their people to pay the “danegeld,” the tribute to the Vikings, became a regular defensive strategy. But in return for the cash, the Vikings often negotiated peaceful coexistence and conversion. In 911 Charles III the Simple of France ceded Normandy (French for “territory of the Northmen”) to the Viking leader Rollo and his warriors, who became his Christian vassals. In turn they pledged to defend their new duchy against other Vikings.
These Vikings, now called Normans, adopted the French language and ways and organized a strong state in Normandy. In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, led his followers across the English Channel to conquer England. In the same century the exploits of such Norman adventurers as Robert Guiscard created the Norman kingdom of Sicily, at the expense of the Muslims in Sicily and the Byzantine emperor in southern Italy. Normans from Sicily also took part in the Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land.
......................... 25 WILLIAM I "Longsword" de NORMANDY 913 – 943 – 2nd Duke of Normandy
............................... +SPROTE de BRETAGNE 915 – 1005 – “The Fearless”
.......................... 26 RICHARD I de NORMANDY 933 – 996 - 3rd Duke of Normandy
........................... 27 GODFREY de NORMANDY 953 – 1015 -de NORMANDY of Brionne & EU
............................ 28 Gilbert GISLEBERT 1000 – 1040 -
............................. 29 Gilbert Crispin de Clare 1020 – 1066 – Count of Eu
................................... +Gunmore de Aninon
............................... 30 Ann de Clare
..................................... +Walter II de Tirel 1040 -
3.WALTER III de TIREL Baron of Poix born – 1060 – died 1136
 "SIR WALTER III DE TIREL, Lord of Poix, Laingaham, Kingsworthy and Avon and a Baron of France and England; Castellan of Pontoise 1091. His father had been created the Earl of Buckingham in 1066, after the Battle of Hastings. Walter III Tirel who was the owner of 107 lordships and commanded the army of King William, Rufus, of England, in Normandy in 1089.

WALTER III TIREL WENT ON THE 1ST CRUSADE - In response to the announcement by Pope Urban II of a Crusade to the Holy Land in 1095, Christian forces from Western Europe converged on Constantinople, where they united with Byzantine forces to attack Seljuk armies in Anatolia and Muslim armies in Syria and Palestine. By 1099 the Crusaders had achieved their goal—the capture of the city of Jerusalem. However, Christian territories acquired during the First Crusade were gradually lost over the next 200 years. Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim forces in 1187, and the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land fell in 1291.

 
 
 

It was against this background that Pope Urban II, in a speech at Clermont in France in November 1095, called for a great Christian expedition to free Jerusalem from the Seljuk Turks, a new Muslim power that had recently begun actively harassing peaceful Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem. The pope was spurred by his position as the spiritual head of Western Europe, by the temporary absence of strong rulers in Germany (the Holy Roman Empire) or France who could either oppose or take over the effort, and by a call for help from the Byzantine emperor, Alexius I. These various factors were genuine causes, and at the same time, useful justifications for the pope’s call for a Crusade. In any case, Urban’s speech—well reported in several chronicles—appealed to thousands of people of all classes. It was the right message at the right time.
 
Siege of Jerusalem
 
The First Crusade, which began in 1096, was successful in its explicit aim of freeing Jerusalem. It also established a Western Christian military presence in the Near East that lasted for almost 200 years. The Crusaders called this area Outremer, French for “beyond the seas.” The First Crusade was the wonder of its day. It attracted no European kings and few major nobles, drawing mainly lesser barons and their followers. They came primarily from the lands of French culture and language, which is why Westerners in Outremer were referred to as Franks. Of course we know that the Tirels were descended from the Franks.
 
The Crusader States
 
The Crusaders faced many obstacles. They had no obvious or widely accepted leader, no agreement about relations with the churchmen who went with them, no definition of the pope’s role, and no agreement with the Byzantine emperor on whether they were his allies, servants, rivals, or perhaps enemies. These uncertainties divided the Crusaders into factions that did not always get along well with one another.
 
Sack of Jerusalem, 1099
 
Different leaders followed different routes to Constantinople, where they were all to meet. The contingents of Robert of Flanders and Bohemond of Taranto went by sea via Italy, while the other major groups, those of Godfrey of Bouillon (also an ancestor of the Terrells) and Raymond of Toulouse, took the land route around the Adriatic Sea. As the Crusaders marched east, they were joined by thousands of men and even women, ranging from petty knights and their families, to peasants seeking freedom from their ties to the manor. A vast miscellany of people with all sorts of motives and contributions joined the march. They followed local lords or well-known nobles or drifted eastward on their own, walking to a port town and then sailing to Constantinople. Few knew what to expect. They knew little about the Byzantine Empire or its religion, Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Few Crusaders understood or had much sympathy for the Eastern Orthodox religion, which did not recognize the pope, used the Greek language rather than Latin, and had very different forms of art and architecture. They knew even less about Islam or Muslim life. For some the First Crusade became an excuse to unleash savage attacks in the name of Christianity on Jewish communities along the Rhine. These attacks have been in the memory of Muslims for some 800 years and could account for the hatred exhibited in the bombings of America on September 11, 2001.
The leaders met at Constantinople and chose to cross on foot the inhospitable and dangerous landscape of what is now Turkey, rather than going by sea. Somehow, despite this questionable decision, the original forces of perhaps 25,000 to 30,000 still survived in sufficient numbers to overcome the Muslim states and principalities of what are now Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Like Western Christendom, Islam was disunited. Its rulers failed to anticipate the effectiveness of the enemy. In addition, the Franks, as the attacking force, had at least a temporary advantage. They exploited this, taking the key city of Antioch in June 1098, under the lead of Bohemond of Taranto. Then, despite their divisions and factionalism, they moved on to Jerusalem. The siege of Jerusalem culminated in a bloody and destructive Christian victory in July 1099, in which thousands of the Muslim inhabitants were brutally murdered and massacred without mercy. The Christians tore out the bowels of women and children and left the skulls of men mounted on stakes.
With victory came new problems. Many Crusaders saw the taking of Jerusalem as the goal; they were ready to go home. Others, especially minor nobles and younger sons of powerful noble families, saw the next step as the creation of a permanent Christian presence in the Holy Land. They looked to build feudal states like those of the West. They hoped to transplant their military culture and to carve out fortunes on the new frontier. Though the Crusaders were more intolerant than understanding of Eastern life, they recognized its riches. They also saw such states as the way to protect the routes to the Holy Land and its Christian sites. The result was the establishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, first under Godfrey of Bouillon, who took the title of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, and then under his brother Baldwin, who ruled as king. In addition to the Latin Kingdom, which was centered on Jerusalem, three other Crusader states were founded: the County of Tripoli, in modern Lebanon; the Principality of Antioch, in modern Syria; and the County of Edessa, in modern northern Syria and southern Turkey.
WALTER III TIREL married Adeliza, daughter of Richard Fitz-Gilbert, founder of the House of Clare and Rohaise de Bolebec. Rohaise was a daughter of Walter Giffard, the elder Count of Longueville, in Normandy
In about 1026, Herleva of Falaise, the sixteen year old daughter of a tanner from Falaise in Normandy, gave birth to a son called Richard. The boy's father was Gilbert, Count of Brionne, one of the most powerful landowners in Normandy. As Herleva was not married to Gilbert, the boy became known as Richard Fitz Gilbert. The term 'Fitz' was used to show that Richard was the illegitimate son of Gilbert.
When Robert, Duke of Normandy died in 1035 William of Normandy inherited his father's title. Several leading Normans, including Gilbert of Brionne, Osbern the Seneschal and Alan of Brittany, became William's guardians.
A number of Norman barons would not accept an illegitimate son as their leader and in 1040 an attempt was made to kill William. The plot failed but they did manage to kill Gilbert of Brionne. As Richard was illegitimate, he did not receive very much land when his father died.
Richard married Rohese, daughter of Walter Giffard of Normandy. The couple had at least three children, Rohaise, Gilbert de Clare and Walter of Clare.
When William of Normandy, decided to invade England in 1066, he invited his three half-brothers, Richard Fitz Gilbert, Odo of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain to join him. Richard, who had married Rohese, daughter of Walter Giffard of Normandy, also brought with him members of his wife's family.
After his coronation in 1066, William the Conqueror claimed that all the land in England now belonged to him. William retained about a fifth of this land for his own use. The rest was distributed to those men who had helped him defeat Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
Richard Fitz Gilbert, was granted land in Kent, Essex, Surrey, Suffolk and Norfolk. In exchange for this land. Richard had to promise to provide the king with sixty knights. In order to supply these knights, barons divided their land up into smaller units called manors. These manors were then passed on to men who promised to serve as knights when the king needed them.
Richard built castles at Tonbridge (Kent), Clare (Suffolk), Bletchingley (Surrey) and Hanley (Worcester). His knights normally lived in the manor that they had been granted. Once or twice a year, Richard would visit his knights to check the manor accounts and to collect the profits that the land had made.
The Normans were very impressed with Richard's castle at Tonbridge. After a while people in Kent began calling him Richard of Tonbridge. Other people called him Richard of Clare, after the castle and large estates he owned in Clare in Suffolk. In time, Richard adopted Clare as his family name and he became known as Richard de Clare.
William the Conqueror trusted Richard de Clare and appointed him as a member of his ruling council. Richard was also given the title Chief Justiciar. This meant that Richard took over the running of the government when the king was making one of his many visits to Normandy. In this post he played an important role in the suppression of the revolt against William in 1075.
Just before William the Conqueror died he decided that William Rufus, rather than his older brother, Robert Curthose, should be king of England. He was crowned by Lanfranc, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on 26th September, 1087.
The following year some Normans, including Richard de Clare, Odo of Bayeux, Robert of Mortain, William Fitz Osbern and Geoffrey of Coutances, led a rebellion against the rule of Rufus in order to place Robert Curthose on the throne. However most Normans in England remained loyal and Rufus and his army successfully attacked the rebel strongholds at Tonbridge, Pevensey and Rochester.
After a two day siege at Tonbridge Castle, Richard de Clare was forced to surrender to William Rufus. Richard was punished by having his castle and the town of Tonbridge burnt to the ground. Richard de Clare was also forced to live in a monastery where he died three years later. His land was inherited by his son, Gilbert de Clare.
 

However, in 1100 he accidentally killed William II, Rufus, King of England 1097-1100, by a glancing arrow while hunting in the New Forest. As commander of Rufus’ army, he was friends with William the Conqueror’s son, who was not a popular king at all. No one liked him. One day they were out hunting in the New Forest Area. Walter II Tirel fired into the bushes at what he thought was an animal for dinner. Unfortunately, he hit the king who then died. Some say it was an accident, others wonder if it was assassination. They were hunting with bow and arrow at the time. Shakespeare recalls this scene in one of his famous plays, Richard the Third. Sir Walter fled England to live in exile in Normandy at Castle of Chaumait.

 

In 1116 Walter III Tirel founded the Priory of St. Denis -de-l’Estrée, which existed until the 18th century.
 

In 1131 Walter III Tirel founded the Monastery of Selincourt. He was most probably a very good friend of Milo of Selincourt. During the second quarter of the twelfth century north-western Europe saw a revival of religion centering around the monasteries established in Prémontré and other places, spreading from those locations over France, Germany and the Netherlands, and to England and elsewhere. Milo of Sélincourt, who for some years lived as a hermit with several others at Saint-Josse-au-Bois in the Pas-de-Calais, felt himself called to the common life; he therefore offered his little group to the Premonstratensians, they were accepted and in 1123 he was advanced to the government of the monastery, being instituted by St. Norbert himself. He held office for eight years, discharging it in perfect accordance with the constitutions of his order, dividing his time between the worship of God in choir and active work for souls. In 1131 he was appointed Bishop of Thérouanne, and his first Episcopal act was to give the canonical benediction to Simon, the new abbot of the famous monastery of Saint-Bertin at Saint-Omer. As befitted a canon regular, Blessed Milo insisted on the strictest discipline in his diocese, and he was quick to check any infringement of a bishop's prerogative: one Arnoul built a castle at Thérouanne which Milo saw as a threat to the independent position of the bishop and a menace to his people's peace - so he made him pull it down. Milo also showed himself very critical of the Cluniac monks for which he was rebuked by Blessed Peter the Venerable. Nevertheless he is said to have been personally a humble man.
  Sir Walter Tirel died in the Holy Land in 1136, Second Crusade and is buried in Jerusalem
1.
+WALTER III de TIREL Baron of Poix
Notes

"Witness to a concession in 1069 by Ralf, Count of Amines, to the church of Amiens."

 

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