PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON- TROY TO THE TERRELLS

Thomas Jefferson's home Monticello
Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson - the 3rd President of the United States and author of the Decleration of Independence and the Constitution

Thomas Jefferson Memorial

THE JEFFERSON MEMORIAL IN WASHINGTON D.C.

Monticello - Jefferson's home in Monticello Virginia

Univ

THOMAS JEFFERSON WAS THE ARCHITECT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

Thomas Jefferson in stone

THOMAS JEFFERSON AS HE APPEARS ON MOUNT RUSHMORE IS SOUTH DAKOTA

Jefferson

In the thick of party conflict in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, "I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man."

This powerful advocate of liberty was born in 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia, inheriting from his father, a planter and surveyor, some 5,000 acres of land, and from his mother, a Randolph, high social standing. He studied at the College of William and Mary, then read law. In 1772 he married Martha Wayles Skelton, a widow, and took her to live in his partly constructed mountaintop home, Monticello.

Freckled and sandy-haired, rather tall and awkward, Jefferson was eloquent as a correspondent, but he was no public speaker. In the Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Congress, he contributed his pen rather than his voice to the patriot cause. As the "silent member" of the Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In years following he labored to make its words a reality in Virginia. Most notably, he wrote a bill establishing religious freedom, enacted in 1786.
 
Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathy for the French Revolution led him into conflict with Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington's Cabinet. He resigned in 1793.

Sharp political conflict developed, and two separate parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually assumed leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Attacking Federalist policies, he opposed a strong centralized Government and championed the rights of states.

As a reluctant candidate for President in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of election. Through a flaw in the Constitution, he became Vice President, although an opponent of President Adams. In 1800 the defect caused a more serious problem. Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives settled the tie. Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election.

When Jefferson assumed the Presidency, the crisis in France had passed. He slashed Army and Navy expenditures, cut the budget, eliminated the tax on whiskey so unpopular in the West, yet reduced the national debt by a third. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates, who were harassing American commerce in the Mediterranean. Further, although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson suppressed his qualms over constitutionality when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.

During Jefferson's second term, he was increasingly preoccupied with keeping the Nation from involvement in the Napoleonic wars, though both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American merchantmen. Jefferson's attempted solution, an embargo upon American shipping, worked badly and was unpopular.

Jefferson retired to Monticello to ponder such projects as his grand designs for the University of Virginia. A French nobleman observed that he had placed his house and his mind "on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe."

He died on July 4, 1826.

Were George Washington and Thomas Jefferson Jesus Mythicists?
 by D.M. Murdock/Acharya S
 
Did the American Founding Fathers study the case for Jesus Christ being a mythical figure? There is much evidence that Washington and Jefferson, among other famous and important figures of the day, were influenced by well-known French mythographers and "Jesus mythicists," such as Dupuis and Volney.

Excerpted from The Christ Myth Anthology

"The fable of Christ and his twelve apostles...is a parody of the sun and the twelve signs of the Zodiac, copied from the ancient religions of the Eastern world.... Every thing told of Christ has reference to the sun. His reported resurrection is at sunrise, and that on the first day of the week; that is, on the day anciently dedicated to the sun, and from thence called Sunday..."

Thomas Paine, The Complete Religious and Theological Works of Thomas Paine (382)

"...the day will come when the mystical generation of Jesus, by the supreme being as his father in the womb of a virgin will be classed with the fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain of Jupiter."

Thomas Jefferson, The Adams-Jefferson Letters (594)

Over the decades I have been researching the subject of the origins of Christianity, as well as religion and mythology in general, I have come across many astonishing facts that I have passionately worked to bring to light for the enjoyment of others. Along with this work has been the development of a history for what is called "mythicism," which in this context specifically refers to the study of various biblical characters, such as Jesus Christ, as mythical and not historical figures.

In this quest to bring forth and help develop mythicism or the "mythicist position," I have studied numerous primary sources in multiple languages from antiquity, as well as the writings of brilliant visionaries and credentialed authorities of the modern era. One of the juiciest tidbits I have ever uncovered on this quest is the evidence that at least a couple of the American Founding Fathers appear to have entertained the ideas of Jesus mythicism, although this contention seems to have been omitted from the historical record as much as is possible, for obvious reasons, perhaps.

"Some of the most famous early Americans may have considered Jesus Christ to have been a myth."

It is a fascinating concept that some of the most famous early Americans may have considered Jesus Christ to have been a myth, but there are intriguing indications that it is true, at least in part or at certain times. In this regard appears the following astounding quote, which suggests that first and third American Presidents George Washington (1732-1799) and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) were closet mythicists!

In Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country (290), an article entitled "Virginia, First and Last" states:

The English Church at an early day in the history of Virginia gained for itself general odium: it levied heavy taxes on all who did not attend the ministrations of the ingeniously dull men whom England sent to colonial pulpits; it persecuted and taxed dissent heavily; and, worst of all, it opposed the revolution bitterly and to the last. Washington himself would have incurred popular distrust had he occupied that pew in the Pohick church. The result was, that so soon as the independence was gained, the English Church sank away, and the State was overrun with all manner of orthodox dissenters. From these the leading men took refuge in scepticism. Washington even was glad to have Volney as his guest at Mount Vernon, and Jefferson occupied his Sundays at Montecello in writing letters to Paine (they are unpublished, I believe, but I have seen them), in favour of the probabilities that Christ and his twelve apostles were only personifications of the sun and the twelve signs of the zodiac. If there was a believer among them all, I do not know his name.

The pertinent part of this eye-popping quote bears repeating:

"Washington even was glad to have Volney as his guest at Mount Vernon, and Jefferson occupied his Sundays at Montecello in writing letters to Paine..., in favour of the probabilities that Christ and his twelve apostles were only personifications of the sun and the twelve signs of the zodiac."

The author of these revealing contentions refers to Count Volney, a famous French traveler, philosopher, writer and "Jesus mythicist" of the 18th to 19th centuries, as well as to the Anglo-American philosopher, writer and "Lost Founder" Thomas Paine (1737-1809). One must wonder if these important letters were left unpublished because they contained what might be perceived as "dangerous" information? Where are these purported letters? Do they exist, or have they been destroyed?

Rev. Dr. Moncure Daniel Conway
This article about the State of Virginia was republished in Littell's Living Age (no. 1088/8 April, 1865; p. 12), edited by Eliakim Littell. The author is not identified in either place, but the Wellesley Index to Victorian Publications (173) does identify him as Rev. Dr. Moncure Daniel Conway (1832-1907), a Harvard Divinity School graduate, minister, prominent abolitionist and friend of Charles Darwin, among other luminaries. Dr. Conway was also a well-known and foremost expert on Thomas Paine, having pored over the latter's writings and correspondence, and composed a two-volume, oft-cited biography about him.

The fact that Conway's name does not appear in either Fraser's or Living Age possibly indicates his reticence in being associated with this potentially dangerous information. Yet, the article is long and full of markers that expose his true identity--including the fact that he claims to have seen these letters personally, a privilege undoubtedly reserved for the few, such as those in Conway's position. Under such circumstances, it is difficult to believe that this respectable individual was behaving mendaciously, and, with the indications revealed here, we may logically conclude that Conway did not fabricate these letters or engage in "rhetoric" concerning their content.

Verifying the first contention in the "Virginia" article--and that he is the author of same--in Barons of the Potomack and the Rappahannock (182), Conway writes about Volney:

In the last century a wayfarer appeared in some of the Virginia villages and was hospitably received, on the strength of a note he bore in the following words:

"The historian and philosopher Volney needs no recommendation from--G. Washington."

The implication here is that the mysterious and controversial Count had been introduced to American society by none other than George Washington himself.

Volney, Dupuis and Napoleon
Constantin François de Chasseboeuf (1757-1820), also known as "Count Volney," was a professor of history and the author of the classic early mythicist work The Ruins of Empires, originally written in French. Like his fellow French mythographer, college professor and early mythicist writer Charles Dupuis (1742-1809), Volney was also a tutor of French leader Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), who made him a senator and a count.

Unearthing fascinating facts concerning ancient religion and mythology, one of the academician Dupuis's major views in his multivolume work Origine de tous les cultes ou religion universelle (1795) or Origin of All Religious Worship can be summarized as follows:

The existence of Christ, the restorer..., cannot be accepted as a historical fact... With a single blow we shall destroy the follies of the general public and those of the new philosophes, and at the same time we shall strip Christ of his two natures. The public takes him for a god and a man together; the contemporary philosophe takes him for a man only. We shall certainly not take him for a god, and even less for a man. (Bietenholz, 327)

In this same regard, Volney remarked:

There are absolutely no other monuments of the existence of Jesus Christ as a human being, than a passage in Josephus..., a single phrase in Tacitus..., and the Gospels. But the passage in Josephus is unanimously acknowledged to be apocryphal, and to have been interpolated towards the close of the third century... the existence of Jesus is no better proved than that of Osiris and Hercules... (Volney 1849, 118)

In The Ruins, speaking as a Buddhist lama refuting Christian claims of Buddhism plagiarizing from Christianity, Volney states:

Prove to us now...that the man whom you make the author of your sect is not [Buddha] himself disfigured. Prove to us by historical facts that he even existed at the epoch you pretend; for it being destitute of authentic testimony, we absolutely deny it... (Volney 1853, 113)

Volney's section in Ruins on Jesus (172) is entitled:

Christianity or the allegorical worship of the Sun under the cabalistical names of Christen or Christ and Yes-us or Jesus

Thus, Dupuis and Volney's thesis was that Christ was a mythical figure based on the sun.

"It is quite a big question, whether Jesus Christ has ever lived."

So influential were Dupuis and Volney that in 1808 at Weimar, Germany, Napoleon remarked into the ear of a German writer, Christopher Martin Wieland (1733-1813): "By the way, it is quite a big question, whether Jesus Christ has ever lived." (Bietenholz, 326)

In this regard, it is contended that Napoleon's "Commission" to Egypt (1798-1801) was inspired by Dupuis's work, with the desire to find evidence of the religion and mythology that influenced Christianity leading to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. (Knight, 679)

Moreover, when Napoleon returned from Egypt he reinstated Catholicism, at which point he was castigated by Dupuis, to whom he responded that "as for himself, he did not believe that such a person as Jesus Christ ever existed; but as the people were inclined to superstition, he thought proper not to oppose them." We are further told that Dupuis informed Paine and Chancellor Livingston of Napoleon's remarks. (Theoanthr., 150)

Like Volney, and completing the circle, Paine also met with Napoleon, who was so enthralled with the philosopher that the emperor "declared that a statue of gold ought to be erected to him in every city in the universe..." (Linton, 53)

Volney and Franklin
Unsurprisingly considering the exalted company he kept, but highly interesting nonetheless, Volney was also friends with American Founding Father Dr. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), a known irreverent rabblerouser whom the Count encountered in France:

At Madame Helvétius's home at Auteuil, he met Benjamin Franklin, then ambassador of the new United States to France, who decisively influenced his views on morality and introduced him to the next ambassador, Thomas Jefferson. (Leopold, 9)

Here we learn that the young Volney had made the acquaintance of not only Franklin, sometime between 1776 and 1780, but also Thomas Jefferson, before the Count traveled to America. In Volney's subsequent correspondence with Franklin (Wilson, 306), the two evidently discussed philosophy, but Volney's book on mythicism was not published until one year after Franklin's death.

"Lighthouses are more useful than churches."

Baptized a Puritan, Franklin adopted Deism as a young man, declaring in his autobiography, "I soon became a thorough Deist." (Franklin 1834, 23) Although he was a spiritual theist who believed in "the Deity" and who encouraged humanity to worship and pray, Franklin himself did not subscribe to organized religion, once remarking, "Lighthouses are more useful than churches." In consideration of his friendship with Volney and Paine, et al., one wonders whether or not Franklin too was at the very least a "rational Unitarian," as appears to have been somewhat common among Deists.

Voltaire and Bolingbroke
At the same salons where he had encountered Franklin, Volney also met one of his namesakes, famed French philosopher Voltaire. (Linton, x) Born François-Marie Arouet, the pseudonymous Voltaire himself was certainly aware of the Christ-myth thesis, having once written (273):

"I saw some disciples of Bolingbroke..., who denied the existence of a Jesus..."

Voltaire is referring to the English philosopher Henry Saint John, the Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751). In identifying Bolingbroke's Deist disciples as Jesus mythicists, Voltaire has traced back this school of thought to before the time of Dupuis. Certainly, these Deists were likewise not the first mythicists. Despite knowing about the mythicist position, Voltaire evidently retained his perception of a historical Jesus in order to run down the latter's character, which he could not do if Christ were a myth. (Bietenholz, 325)

The fact that Bolingbroke's work had been translated into French by one of Ben Franklin's good friends, Barbeu Dubourg, is yet another intriguing connection that may indicate Franklin's awareness of mythicism as well. (Franklin 1905, 17)

Deism, Unitarianism, Evemerism and Mythicism
Achieving prominence during the 17th and 18th centuries as part of the "Age of Enlightenment," Deism is a religious viewpoint that does not deny God's existence but that avers "the Creator" can be perceived through nature and reason, while remaining aloof from creation, not interfering in the matters of men or suspending natural laws. The word comes from the Latin "deus," which means "God" and which was previously used interchangeably with the Greek term "theos," likewise meaning "God."

"A number of the Founding Fathers had been exposed to ancient mythology and were disinclined to believe in the miracles of the Bible, including parts of the gospel story."

A number of the Founding Fathers were classically educated and knew much about the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, and it is claimed that, like Franklin, several others were Deists, rather than orthodox Christians. Thus, they had been exposed to ancient mythology and were disinclined to believe in the miracles of the Bible, including parts of the gospel story.

It appears that some of these individuals were also sympathetic to the idea of Unitarianism as well, the "nontrinitarian" ideology that denies the Triune nature of God in favor of a divine Unity. During this period in history, Unitarians espoused what is called "rationalist unitarianism," which essentially rejects the miracles and mythical motifs of Christianity, such as the virgin birth, as reflected in Jefferson's quote about Minerva (Athena) and Jupiter (Zeus).

This perspective of removing the fabulous fairytales in order to find a "real person" underneath is also known as "euhemerism" or "evemerism," after the ancient Greek philosopher Euhemerus or Evemeras (4th cent. BCE), who posited that the gods and legendary figures of old were in fact kings, queens and other heroes who were deified after death, having supernatural and miraculous motifs added to their mundane biographies.

The contention that at least some Deists subscribed to the mythicist position as well is verified by Voltaire's comments about Bolingbroke's disciples. Indeed, these ideas all seem to have coalesced at various times in the views of certain Founding Fathers, some of whom were apparently intrigued by mythicism, such as Washington, Jefferson, Paine and possibly others acquainted with Volney.

Volney and Washington
In 1795, Count Volney traveled to the United States with the intention of settling in America, and was welcomed by President George Washington personally. At his meeting with Washington, Volney recounted to the amazement of the Americans the exact moves of Napoleon's military campaigns as they were happening, proving that he knew the French leader well. (Wilson, 306)

The famed globetrotter Volney's travel guides to the East could be found in Washington's private library. (Longmore, 221) Also listed in the catalogue of the Washington Collection at the Boston Athenaeum is Volney's letter to the hostile American theologian Rev. Dr. Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), regarding a derisive pamphlet the minister had written against Volney's work. (Griffin, 217)

The Athenaeum collection, which comprises part of Washington's library from his home at Mount Vernon, also contains Priestley's various letters to Volney in rebuttal. (Griffin, 170) The presence of these letters in his library demonstrates that Washington was aware of this controversy, which significantly swirled around Volney's mythicism, as concerned his "conflating the God of Moses with pagan gods." (Scholfield, 377) Moreover, in the history section of the Athenaeum collection we discover that Washington also possessed a copy of Volney's The Ruins of Empires, in which the controversial thesis of Jesus mythicism is laid plain. (Griffin, 515)

"Washington possessed a copy of Volney's The Ruins of Empires, in which the controversial thesis of Jesus mythicism is laid plain."

In consideration of these facts, it is probable that Washington was cognizant of Volney's arguments in favor of mythicism, even if he did not embrace them fully or publicly.

Jefferson and Priestly
For many years, it has been contended that Thomas Jefferson was a Deist, if not an atheist, although there are no writings in his own hand making such claims. Jefferson did, however, label himself a Unitarian, and he was so skeptical of many parts of the gospel story that he took a razor and literally cut out these unbelievable miraculous, mystical and magical scriptures, leaving a much thinner book. This "Jefferson Bible," as it is known, is based on Jesus's "principles of a pure deism," a task that the American statesman had originally asked Rev. Priestley to do. In his letter to Priestley of April 9, 1803, Jefferson mentions "Pythagoras, Epicurus, Epictetus, Socrates, Cicero, Seneca, Antoninus" and speaks of Jesus as historical figure, albeit one who has been evemeristically mythologized. (Jefferson 1854, 475-476)

Priestly was an influential Unitarian minister, a denomination that in Jefferson's time stripped away the miraculous and focused on Jesus the compassionate man, the same position Jefferson took in his Bible. The minister, who had assailed Volney over his mythicism, was convinced not only that Jesus had existed as a historical figure but also that he had essentially been a Unitarian, like Priestley himself, who set out to prove this premise in his book about Christ.

Jefferson, Volney and Adams
Having met in France, between 1790 and 1806 Jefferson and Volney corresponded at least 30 times, which is prolific in consideration of the awkwardness and inconvenience of the medium of the day. During his sojourn in America between 1795 and 1798, Volney visited Jefferson at Monticello. (Leopold, 4) In this regard, in his letter of June 12, 1796 to then-Colonel James Monroe (1758-1831), fifth President of the United States and author of the Monroe Doctrine, Jefferson casually remarks, "Volney is with me at present. He is on his way to the Illinois." (Jefferson 1829, 335) Volney needs no introduction to Monroe, and it is obvious that he is well known among the American elite of the time.

"Volney is with me at present."

A week later (6/17/1796), Jefferson wrote to the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834), who had been a general under Washington in the Revolutionary War and whose whereabouts Jefferson had learned from "M. Volney, now with me" (still). (Jefferson 1829, 338) One wonders what engrossing conversations the two may have engaged in at that time.

Despite Volney having friends in such high places, in 1798 second American President John Adams (1735-1826), evidently influenced by Priestley and others, was able to drive the "infidel" Volney from America, allegedly out of "unmanly revenge," labeling the French count an "atheist, an ignoramus, a Chinese and a Hottentot." (St. John, 236) In view of such treatment of nonbelievers, it may be understood why interest in mythicism has not been overtly declared by the erudite and elite such as are discussed here.

Volney returned to France, where he associated with Madison, through whom Jefferson continued corresponding to the Frenchman, and in a letter of 1804 to James Monroe, President Jefferson mentions his close relationship with the Count.

Jefferson's Volney Collection
In 1805, Jefferson wrote to Volney that he had received the Count's latest work, a travel guide, which the American President had read and "deposited in the Congressional library." Further demonstrating his knowledge of Volney's work, in 1815 Jefferson sold as part of his collection to Congress a copy of the English translation of Volney's The Ruins, published in 1796--the same year Volney visited Jefferson at Monticello.

In fact, Jefferson himself evidently translated into English the first 20 chapters of Ruins, with Joel Barlow finishing the rest, which was published in 1802. (Linebaugh, 410; Gaustad, 35) Adding further intrigue to this tale, Jefferson allegedly asked Volney later to burn his manuscript (Linebaugh, 410), but it appears that instead the translation was simply attributed to Barlow, possibly in order to keep the third President out of what could have been a scandalous affair.

Indeed, as Steven Blakemore (261) states:

Jefferson began a translation of the book but upon becoming president, he realized that he could not complete it and, for political reasons, he did not want to be identified as the translator.

"...the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."

Volney translator Joel Barlow (1750-1812) himself was a American statesman well known for drafting the Islam-appeasing Treaty of Tripoli, in which it was written that "the United States of America is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion."

"[Volney's] ideas are similar to those represented in Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of Independence and the statute of Virginia for religious freedom."

Speaking of the philosophical views in Volney's Ruins, the Library of Congress (2/24/2000) remarks, "These ideas are similar to those represented in Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of Independence and the statute of Virginia for religious freedom."

Like Washington, Jefferson also had in his collection the commentary by Priestley on Volney's mythicism, revealing he also knew about that debate, which might explain any evident reticence on his part about jumping into this intellectual fray, an apparent factor in the introduction of the "alien bills" Adams had used to expel the French mythicist. In consideration of the hostility from the highest office of the land, it is understandable if these gentlemen did not commit to writing much of their personal conversations about religion.

In any event, it is clear from Jefferson's lengthy and enthusiastic correspondence with Volney about a wide variety of subjects, including travel, geography, weather, food, health, languages, politics and philosophy, as well as personal matters such as the state of his home, that he found the latter's writings to be stimulating, that his fondness for the man was unaffected by Adams's actions against him and that he was unphased by Volney's mythicism, about which he clearly knew.

Jefferson, Paine and Jesus as the Sun
If Conway's remarks are true--and we have little reason to believe otherwise--at some point and likely under the influence of Volney (and Dupuis), as well as the "militant Deist" Paine, Jefferson discussed with the latter the possibility of Jesus and his disciples representing the sun and the twelve signs of the zodiac.

As early as 1793, Jefferson was aware that Paine was critical of the gospel story, as in a letter of that year to Jefferson, U.S. Minister to France Gouverneur Morris informs him that Paine is in prison, "where he amuses himself with publishing a pamphlet against Jesus Christ." (Lawrence, 111) The pamphlet to which Morris refers, the first part of The Age of Reason, is a deistic tract that takes a typical evemerist position of Jesus being a "virtuous and amiable man" (Paine 1852, 14). In that same writing, Paine refers repeatedly to "Christian mythology" and "Christian mythologists." (E.g., Paine 1852, 12)

It seems that, particularly after the publication of The Ruins, Paine became increasingly inclined towards mythicism, as displayed in his later work on Freemasonry, which was an essay to be included in the third part of his Age of Reason but which was not published until 1818, nine years after his death.

"The Christian religion and Masonry have one and the same common origin, both are derived from the worship of the sun."

As he had done in his letter of 1806 to Andrew A. Dean (quoted above), in his "Origins of Free-Masonry" Paine likewise equated Jesus with the sun:

The Christian religion and Masonry have one and the same common origin, both are derived from the worship of the sun; the difference between their origin is, that the Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ in the place of the sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the sun, as I have shown in the chapter on the origin of the Christian religion. (Paine, 324)

In this regard, George Washington himself was a Mason (Mulsow, 193), as was Benjamin Franklin (Popkin, 50). There is no official record of Thomas Jefferson being a Mason, but he was surrounded by Masons in his family and as business and political associates, and he attended a number of Masonic meetings and ceremonies at various lodges. (Beless) It is therefore likely that all three men were familiar with the doctrine outlined by Paine.

In the paragraph above comparing Jesus with the sun, Paine's last sentence has an asterisk (*) on it that reads: "Not published," in reference to the aforementioned chapter concerning Christian origins. One wonders what the chapter contained that prevented it from being published; it is likely from all this evidence that it was something in line with the works of Dupuis and Volney, i.e., mythicism.

Not content with censoring the Christian origins chapter, the entire paragraph was also omitted from Paine's Freemasonry pamphlet published posthumously by Madame Bonneville in 1810, undoubtedly for fear of offending the masses. As American historian Dr. Bruce Kuklick writes (xxiii), "In a time of religious retrenchment in the United States, Paine's theology became a matter of censure." In this same vein, when in 1802 Paine went to publish his third part of Age of Reason along with a response to a prominent churchman who had assailed his work, Jefferson requested him not to do so. (Morais, 126)

It is therefore easy to understand why any letters from Jefferson to Paine regarding this taboo subject would go unpublished--or be destroyed.

"A couple of decades later, popular English minister Robert Taylor was imprisoned for being a mythicist."

Any fears about censure--or worse--would have been well founded, however, as was discovered a couple of decades later, when popular English minister Robert Taylor was imprisoned for saying essentially the same thing, i.e., for being a mythicist.

Robert Taylor and Charles Darwin
One of Dupuis and Volney's later devotees was Rev. Dr. Robert Taylor (1784-1844), whose mistreatment under England's "blasphemy" laws badly frightened the budding evolutionist and Conway friend Dr. Charles Darwin as to his own potential fate. Taylor was notoriously arrested, tried and convicted for publicly calling into question the veracity of the Bible and Christian tradition, preaching from the pulpit that Christ was a mythical figure. He served two prison sentences in the late 1820s and early 1830s for a total of three years, during which time he defiantly wrote two mythicist works, The Syntagma and The Diegesis. If Darwin was aware of Taylor's fate, he was likely also knowledgeable about what the minister had been preaching: To wit, Jesus Christ was a mythical not historical figure, based on pre-Christian solar mythology.

"Such ill treatment may indicate why so little mythicism has made it into the public view, with questioners of the 'historical Jesus' treated as pariahs in both the public at large and the hallowed halls of academia."

Such ill treatment may indicate why so little mythicism has made it into the public view, even to this day, with questioners of the evidence for the "historical Jesus" and propounders of mythical parallels treated as pariahs in both the public at large and the hallowed halls of academia. However, as we can see from this fascinating story, there is more to the picture than meets the eye, and the question of Jesus's historicity has been on the minds of many of the greatest and most influential thinkers of all time.

The Sun of Righteousness, Valentinus and the Zodiac
The hypothesis by various erudite notables that Christ was the sun and his 12 apostles were the signs of the zodiac has a long and venerable history, beginning in the early Christian period, extending throughout later tradition. Indeed, perceiving Jesus as the "Sun of Righteousness" was based on the scripture at Malachi 4:2, the biblical book immediately preceding the Gospel of Matthew:

But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings...

This tradition of solar imagery within Christianity has continued abundantly to the present day.

Building on the precedent of the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria and the Jewish historian Josephus, both of whom equated the 12 Tribes of Israel with the 12 signs of the zodiac, early Christians and Gnostics did likewise with the 12 apostles.

For example, in the early third century, Church father Clement of Alexandria (Excerpts from Theodotus 1.25.2) reported on the doctrine of the Valentinian Gnostic Theodotus (fl. 150-180 AD/CE):

He says the apostles were substituted for the twelve signs of the zodiac, for, as birth is directed by them, so is rebirth by the apostles. (Hegedus, 324)

As theologian Rev. Dr. Tim Hegedus remarks in Early Christianity and Ancient Astrology (343):

"[The] twelve apostles have taken over the role of guardian...of the zodiacal signs that had traditionally been held by the twelve [Olympian] gods."

This correlation continued throughout early Christianity into the Middle Ages, as evidenced by imagery of Jesus as the central sun surrounded by his 12 as the zodiac, discussed by famed churchman the Venerable Bede, for one, in the seventh century:

In England the Venerable Bede, 673-735, substituted the eleven apostles for eleven of the early signs, as the Corona seu circulus sanctorum Apostolorum, John the Baptist fitly taking the place of Aquarius to complete the circle. (Allen, 6)

The astrotheological imagery within the Bible and Christianity is abundant and can be discussed at length, as have I done in my books.

In view of all these factors, it is evident that some of the most brilliant minds and greatest visionaries in history have entertained, if not been convinced by, the idea of Jesus Christ being a mythical figure, based significantly on Pagan mythology that revolves around the sun. It is also obvious that the public expression of such mythicism, whether verbal or written, could bring down the persecutory wrath of the reigning authorities, which explains why this amazing and important history is not more widely known. Until today...

Bibliography
For more information, see the longer chapter in my upcoming book The Christ Myth Anthology, as well as Jesus as the Sun throughout the Ages.

Further Reading
What is a Mythicist?
A Brief History of Mythicism
Jesus as the Sun throughout History

 

The Trojan City of London
The early inhabitants of Britain, who arrived more than a thousand years before the Roman invasion, were the scattered remnants of the fallen city of Troy. They founded a city on the Thames and called it "Troia Newydd" (New Troy) which later became "Troynovant" or "Trinovantum".
King Lud (73 BC) re-named it "Caer-Ludd" (Lud's Town). It later became known as Kaerlundein and then London. When Lud died, he was buried near a gateway called Porthlud, which the Saxons called Ludgate.
The re-naming of the city has been a disaster for British history. Not only have we forgotten our links with ancient Troy, but we have also given ground to the advocates of evolution, who don't want us to know that, through the Trojans, we can trace our ancestry all the way back to Noah.

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Brutus, King of the Britons
The story begins with the city of Troy in Asia Minor (now eastern Turkey), near the Bosphorus. The Trojans were at war against the Greeks, and they thought they had won. They found a large wooden horse outside the city that the Greeks had left behind, and they brought it into the city as a trophy, not knowing that it was full of Greek soldiers. During the night, when the Trojans were all asleep, the Greeks came out of the horse and opened the city gates, so that the Greek armies entered and destroyed the city. This happened during the reign of Priam, the last king of Troy, about 1182 BC.

The Trojans and Dardanians were allies, and there were intermarriages between their royal families. Aeneas was the son of Anchises, the leader of the Dardanian army. He married Creusa, the daughter of Priam, King of Troy, and they had a son called Ascanius. Aeneas and Creusa were third cousins, and their common ancestor was Tros, who founded the city of Troy. When the city was destroyed, Aeneas escaped with his father Anchises and his young son Ascanius, together with many other refugees, but Creusa got lost in the confusion. They first went to Africa, and then to Italy where they were well received by Latinus, king of the Latins. Aeneas married Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus and they had a son called Silvius.

The journey of Aeneas to Italy, and his assimilation among the Latins, was later to become the subject of Virgil's Aneid, written between 30 and 19 BC, so that he became immortalised in Roman literature.

Ascanius married and had a son, also called Silvius, who had his way with Lavinia's niece and got her pregnant. She gave birth to a son called Brutus, but she died during childbirth. When Brutus was 15 years old, he was out hunting with his father, and accidentally killed him while shooting an arrow at a deer. Thus he was considered to have killed both his father and his mother, although unintentionally, and was banished from Italy.

Brutus went to Greece where his royal lineage was recognised by Pandrasus, king of the Greeks, and by the downtrodden Trojans who had escaped from Troy and were living as an under-class among the Greeks. The Trojans adopted him as their leader and assembled themselves into an army. He went to Pandrasus and asked for their liberty, so that they could live as equals with the Greeks, or else be given assistance to go to other lands. Pendrasus was enraged by this request and went to war against the Trojans, but Brutus prevailed against him. Pendrasus was anxious to achieve a peace of some sort, but he recognised that the war had led to feelings of resentment that would make it impossible for the Trojans to continue living among the Greeks. He therefore decided that the departure of the Trojans was the only possible option, and he furnished them with ships so that they could leave. He also gave his daughter Ignoge to Brutus, to be his wife.

Brutus and his army sailed away and stopped in a few parts of Africa, then they sailed through the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar) and arrived in Gaul where they picked up some Trojan exiles. They fought some battles against the Gauls, then returned to their ships and sailed to their intended destination, an almost empty island to the north of Gaul known as "Alban" (Albion), which means "White Island". Those who came with Brutus were called "Britons", and the island became known as "Britain". The date of their arrival is calculated to be 1074 BC, according to a footnote by Peter Roberts in his translation of Tysilio's "Chronicle of the Kings of Britain" (1).

Brutus was a Trojan on his father's side and Latin on his mother's side. He was married to a Greek, so his descendants were Trojan, Latin and Greek. He was the first of a long line of kings, some of whom intermarried with other European royal families.
 

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New Troy
Brutus founded a city on the Thames and called it "Troia Newydd" (New Troy). It retained the name for a long time, but later became corrupted to "Troynovant" or "Trinovantum".

King Lud (73 BC), fortified the city and annexed lands to it, and re-named it "Caer-Ludd" (Lud's Town). It later became known as Kaerlundein and finally the Saxons called it London. When Lud died, he was buried near a gateway called Porthlud, and the Saxons called it Ludgate.

The change of name was a cause of disagreement between Lud and his brother Niniaw who opposed the change. Gildas also wrote at length about it (according to Tysilio). It would be unfair to throw the Bible at Lud, because he was a pre-Christian pagan, but if he had been wiser he would have taken account of Proverbs 22:28.

Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set.

Comparing this with a similar verse in the next chapter (23:10), the context is the theft of land, but we see that Lud was annexing land to London, so it seems appropriate.

The conseqence of the change of name has been a tragic loss of history. London was associated with Troy for about a thousand years, but it has been so expertly forgotten that hardly anybody today knows that the Britons came from the Trojans. Yet the British people still have an affection for Troy and like to hear the epic tales of Sparta, Greece, and the Trojan Horse.

There are a few street names in London that still perpetuate the name of Troy, although I have to look into their history:

Troy Town, in Peckham Rye
Troy Road, in Norwood
Troy Street and Troy Court, in Woolwich
We would do well to remember our ancient history, not just for its own sake (and to remember our mistakes), but in this case it helps us to remember the mother of all histories, which is our descent from Noah and the dispersal fo the nations after the flood.

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Discarded History
The people who have documented our pre-Roman history include Geoffrey of Monmouth (2) and Nennius (3). Geoffrey is despised and discarded by many historians, because he claimed that his "History of the Kings of Britain" was a translation of a "very ancient book" which (supposedly) no-one can find. Nennius, who wrote a similar history, although much shorter, is thrown into the same trash-can.

However, this rash treatment is unjustified, because Tysilio's Chronicle is very likely to have been Geoffrey's source material, and he wasn't just making it up. The argument in support of Tysilio was given in a paper called "Neglected British History", presented to the British Academy in 1917 by Flinders Petrie (4).

Of course it is convienient for the purposes of evolution to discard all these histories, because Nennius gives us, not just the history of the Britons and their descent from the Trojans and Dardanians, but also their descent from Noah.

Nennius is not alone in making this type of claim.

The Saxon Chronicles give the lineage of Woden back to Sceaf (pronounced "Sheaf"), who is thought to be Japheth, the son of Noah. A number of Saxon genalogies are given by Cooper (5).
The Celtic kings of Ireland can be traced back to Noah, through the line of Magog.(6),(7). This gives the astonishing result that some people in Ireland, if they belong to an ancient clan, can trace their personal ancestry back to Noah.
Some of these genealogies are fragmented (and history is always like that) but they all tell us the same thing. The pre-Christian pagans knew that they had descended from someone who built a boat and survived a Flood while the rest of the world perished. None of these sources come from either Judaism or Christianity. They come from people who never saw a Bible, never knew that such a book existed, and have their own histories which are as old as the Bible itself.

There is plenty of scientific evidence for the Flood, and much historical evidence as different cultures around the world have their own stories about a family on a boat. Now the British and Irish have an opportunity to investigate their descent from Noah, and for those who live in England and Wales, the challenge is to recover our pre-Roman history, and particularly our ancient link with Troy.

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References
1. Chronicle of the Kings of Britain. Translated by Peter Roberts in 1811 from the Welsh copy attributed to Tysilio. Facsimile reprint by Llanerch Publishers. ISBN 1-86143-111-2.
Note: This document is associated with the name of Tsysilio, although it was not necessarily written by his own hand. It comes from Brittany where Tysilio spent the last few years of his life, and he died there in 640 AD. At the end of the book, the death of Cadwallader in 688 is recorded, so at least this part of it could not have been written by Tysilio, but possibly by some of the monks in the monastery that he had founded.

2. History of the Kings of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth, 1136. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044170-0.

3. Nennius: Historia Brittonum, 8th century, Giles translation, Medieval Sourcebook.

4. Neglected British History. Flinders Petrie, FRS. Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume VIII, pp 251-278. Paper presented to the Academy on November 7, 1917.

5. After the Flood, Bill Cooper, New Wine Press, 1995, ISBN 1-874367-40-X.

6. The Illustrated History of Ireland, Cusack, 1868, Facsimile reprint by Bracken Books, London, 1987.

7. The History of Ireland. Keating, 1634, Dublin, 1902-14. Copy available in the Guildhall Library, London.

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 Updated March 2002

Mike Gascoigne
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RANDOLPH ANCESTRY - Thomas Jefferson's mother was Jane Randolph
Martha JEFFERSON
• BIRTH: 1746
• DEATH: 1811
Father: Peter JEFFERSON -
Mother: Jane RANDOLPH - BROTHER - U.S. 3rd PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON

Family 1: Dabney CARR
1. +Lucy CARR
2. Peter CARR

101. Martha10 Jefferson (Jane9 Randolph, General Isham8, William "Colonel"7, Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born about 1747.
She married Dabney Carr. Dabney was born about 1746. Martha was the sister of President Thomas Jefferson
Martha Jefferson and Dabney Carr had the following children:
220 i. Peter11 Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
221 ii. Samuel Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
222 iii. Dabney Jr Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
223 iv. Polly Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
224 v. Jane Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
225 vi. Lucy Carr was born on (March 7, 1768). She married Richard Terrell.
Lucy CARR is my 6th great grandmother
• BIRTH: 7 Mar 1768
• DEATH: 1803
Father: Dabney CARR
Mother: Martha JEFFERSON

Family 1: Richard TERRELL
1. Ann TERRELL born approx. 1790
2. Lucy TERRELL
3. +Martha Jefferson TERRELL
4. Virginia TERRELL
5. Dabney Carr TERRELL
6. Mary Jane TERRELL
________________________________________
_John CARR _______
_Dabney CARR ______|
| |_Barbara OVERTON _
|
|--Lucy CARR
|
| _Peter JEFFERSON _
|_Martha JEFFERSON _|
|_Jane RANDOLPH ___
Ann TERRELL
Father: Richard TERRELL
Mother: Lucy CARR
________________________________________
_Richmond TERRELL IV_
_Richard TERRELL _|
| |_Ann OVERTON ________
|
|--Ann TERRELL 1790
|
| _Dabney CARR ________
|_Lucy CARR _______|
|_Martha JEFFERSON ___

. Robert TYRRELL (1594-1643) b&d.Reading, Berks.[39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Jane BALDWIN; 24/6/1617, Reading, Berkshire [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Margaret TYRRELL (c.1618) of Reading, Berks. [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Thomas WARNER [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Roger TYRRELL (?-1683), Reading, Berkshire;
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d.Milford, CT, USA [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………………+Abigail UFFORD; 1638, Milford, CT, USA [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Robert TYRRELL (1619-1677) of Reading, Berks.;
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d.London [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Marie TYRRELL (1620) of Reading, Berks. [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +John MEWE [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Richmond TERRELL (1624-1680) of Reading, Berks.;
: . . ………….. New Kent Co, VA, USA [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Ann OVERTON (1625) [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Elizabeth ? (1631); 1649 [39,43]
ANN TERRELL, my 5th great grandmother, MARRIED JOSEPH CARR TERRELL
Joseph Carr Terrell b. Dec. 7, 1807 married Ann Terrell on Aug. 3, 1845 in Hanover County, Virginia. Anne was born on May 10, 1817 and died May 21, 1880. They had four children-
1. Charles Thomas W. Terrell b. 1852 my great grandfather
Charles Thomas W. Terrell b. 1852 married Fannie Pierce McGehee She was born on Nov. 27, 1852 and was a daughter of Alexander Stewart McGehee 16 Sep 1826 and Mary Jane Thompson 1854 She died at Beaver Dam, Hanover County, Va. On April 29, 1929. They were the parents of five sons.
1. Dr. Emmett Herman Terrell b. May 10, 1878 m. Daisy Ellett
2. Hervey Rosser Terrell b. Aug 20, 1880 d. Jan 10, 1920 married Lucy Vaughan b. Jan 22. 1880 (my Aunt Lucy that cat Miss Lucy was named after. What a great lady she was)
3. Joseph Stuart Terrell b. Oct. 18, 1886 married Y. Winfrey (Uncle Joe)
4. Charles Pierce Terrell b. Sept. 6, 1892 m. Mabel C. Billups
5. Earley Thomas Terrell b. May 13, 1882

Earley Thomas Terrell b. May 13, 1882 married Ophelia Louise Harris (my grandparents who lived in a big house in Ashland, Virginia. They had four children.
1. Earley Thomas Terrell (Uncle Earley who was a psychiatrist and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Married to Eugenia Jackson Beazley (Aunt Jean)
2. Francis Nelson Terrell b. Jan 14, 1915 d. Nov. 5 1972 married Henry Drewry Kerr, Jr.
3. Martha Louise Terrell b. June 22, 1920 married Nathan Lenoir Riddle. They live in Georgia outside of Atlanta
4. James Emmett Terrell – my father
James Emmett Terrell - b. 1911 Ashland, VA - d. Nov. 7, 1967 Evansville, Indiana
m. to Nannie Belle Clendenin, Greensboro, NC. 1937
Attended William & Mary College, Williamsburg, VA
Was Senior Vice President of Mead Johnson & Co. a division of Bristol Meyers Pharmaceuticals
Elder in the 1st Presbyterian Church; Lions Club; Kiwanis Club; Evansville Country Club
2. Nancy Clendenin Terrell - b. Jan. 12, 1940 in Richmond, Virginia
m. Morton Franklin Longnecker, Jr. on Aug. 27, 1960
son - Gregory Stuart Longnecker
son - Michael Emmett Longnecker
brother - James Emmett Terrell, Jr. Architect in Manhattan, NY
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Education from DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, 1961
Master of Arts Degree in Education from Univ. of Southern Miss. Hattiesburg, Ind. 1980
Romper Room Teacher on ABC - TV - 1968 - 1973
Interviewer for General Electric Cablevision for MS., AL., LA & FL from '73 - 75
Manager Ocean Springs Chamber of Commerce 1976
Master Weaver at Worlds Fair in New Orleans - 1984 (Public Exhibition at Biloxi Cultural Center '82
Journalist for International/Caribbean newspapers 1992 - 2006
Member of the Royal British Virgin Islands Yacht Club & The West End BVI Yacht Club and the Hawaii Yacht Club.

GRANDCHILDREN in order of their birth
Lauren Elizabeth Frazier b. 1988
Taylor Hilty Longnecer b. 1989
Christian Terrell Longnecker b. 1996
Hannah Marie Longnecker b. 1997
Luke Longnecker b. 2005
Liana Angelique Longnecker b. 2007
*****************************************************************************************************
1. "John The Elder"1 Randall was born on (birth date unknown).
SOURCE: notes taken from various texts concerning his son John Randall, supplied by the Virginia Historical Society Library during a 1997 visit. Name interchangeably spelled Randall or Randolph.
Further links not firmly established yet are:
1. Sir Thomas Randolf, Lord of Stratnith, was the Sheriff of Rexburgh in 1266, Great Chamberlain of Scotland from 1266 to 1278, and played a prominent part in the politics of the time.
2. He married Lady Isabel Bruce, daughter of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and sister of King Robert Bruce, by whom
3. he had a son, Sir Thomas Randolph (d:1332), who became the first Earl of Moray, and on the death of Bruce, became the Regent of Scotland. SOURCE: Media Research Bureau, Washington, DC, abt. 1988-89. The file states: The 1st Earl Of Moray was the renowned Sir Thomas Randolph, warrior, statesman, and patriot of Scottish History. He was the nephew of Robert Bruce and son of Lady Isabel Bruce.
4. Randolph captured the castle of Edinburgh in 1313, was victorious at the battle of Bannockburn in 1334, and commanded a division of the Scottish Army. Banockburn is said to be the pivotal victory that gave Scots the perpetual self confidence which kept them from ever again becoming a subject race.
5. Upon the death of Robert Bruce, Sir Thomas Randolph became Regent of Scotland and guardian of young King David. He applied himself with great vigor to the settlement of the kingdom.
6. He married Isabel Stewart, daughter of Sir John Stewart of Bunkyl and had issue (Thomas, John, and Agnes).
7. Son Thomas became the 2nd Earl of Moray and was later killed in battle.
8. Son John succeeded his brother and became the 3rd Earl of Moray. Sir Thomas Randolph of Moray, his father was the Thomas Randolph who was Chamberlain of Scotland for some years, during the reign of Alexander III.
Ronald McNair Scott writes in his book, Robert the Bruce, p82, 111 - "Thomas, Earl of Moray (d1332) was captured by English at Methven and protected by his friendship of the Earl of Pembroke and pardoned upon his promise to fight for the English against uncle Bruce. Recaptured by Douglas and returned to the side of Bruce who's genial personality won him back. Thomas's parents were Thomas Randolph and a daughter of Marjorie -Countess of Carrick (father was Earl - only descendant of Celtic Prince, Fergus of Galloway.) (married 2nd to Robert the Bruce, then Earl of Carrick, and first husband Adam de Kilconquahar (great grandson of Duncan, Earl of Fife) who was a friend and knight of Robert the Bruce that died in battle of the Palestine defense of Acre while his wife was still pregnant."
Coat of Arms: has a crest of an antelope holding perhaps a golden horn in its mouth - over an armored helmet and large shield with a prominent cross adorned with 5 stars. The motto accross the top banner is "NIL ADMIRARI" - loosely, "Nothing is to be admired," accross the bottom banner is "FARI QUE SENTIAT" - loosely, " enduring courage, virtue, pursuit of pure thinking." Some have said it indicates "deathless courage, generosity and elevation of mind". Others say: "Wonder at nothing, do what is right". Yet others say: "To speak what he thinks".
"John The Elder" Randall had the following child:
2. John2 Randall ("John The Elder"1) was born before 1463, the first event for which there is a recorded date. John died 1463.
He married an unknown person.
John Randall had the following children:
+ 3 i. John3 Randall II was born before 1552, the first event for which there is a recorded date.
4 ii. Sir Thomas Randall was born 1523. Sir died 1590 at 67 years of age. Confidential diplomatic agent to Russia and Scotland for Queen Elizabeth I. SOURCE: The Randolphs, Bobbs-Merril, 1946: Eckinrode stated his belief that "the Randolphs of Virginia were of the same family as Thomas Randolph (d1311), first Earl of Moray (Murray), nephew of King Robert Bruce of Scotland, captor of Edinburgh Castle and commander of a victorious Scottish force at the battle of Bannockburn (1314)"
3. John3 Randall II (John2, "John The Elder"1) was born before 1552, the first event for which there is a recorded date. John died 1552.
He married Joann Webbe.
John Randall II and Joann Webbe had the following child:
+ 5 i. Robert4 Randolph was born before November 7, 1572, the first event for which there is a recorded date.
5. Robert4 Randolph (John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born in Hams, Sussex, England before November 7, 1572, the first event for which there is a recorded date.
He married Rose Roberts. Rose was born in Hawkhurst, county Kent, England.
Robert Randolph and Rose Roberts had the following child:
+ 6 i. William5 Randolph was born November 7, 1572.

6. William5 Randolph (Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born November 7, 1572. William died 1671 in Troup Co, Ga (probably), at 98 years of age.
He married twice. He married Dorothy Lane.
1. Dorothy is the daughter of Richard Lane and Elizabeth Vincent. Dorothy Lane NOTE* RE: Parsons website http://shell5.ba.best.com/~parsons/dooo2/g0000042.html#I2173
2. Great grandfather was Francis Tanfield –
3. his great grandfather was John de Beaufort –
4. whose father was Edward III, King of England. Ed III father was
5. Edward II, and mother was Princess of France.
6. father was Edward "Longshanks"
He married Elizabeth Smith. Some say Warwickshire was William's birthplace. William was steward to Edward Lord Zouch. VHS College of arms copy shows son Robert and son Thomas - who was the famous poet.
William Randolph and Elizabeth Smith had the following child:
7 i. Thomas the Poet6 Randolph was born in Newnham, England June 15, 1605. Thomas died March 17, 1635 at 29 years of age. 1. PEDIGREE OF THE DESCENDANTS OF HENRY RANDOLPH, I (1623-1673) OF 2 CONT HENRICO COUNTY, VIRGINIA. Manuscript by Wassell Randolph, 1957. CSL Sutro2 CONT Library, San Francisco, CA, call number #CS71 R193 1957, also on micro-fiche
William Randolph and Dorothy Lane had the following children:
+ 8 ii. Richard Randolph was born February 21, 1620/21.
+ 9 iii. Henry Randolph was born 1623.
Sixth Generation
8. Richard6 Randolph (William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born February 21, 1620/21. Richard died 1671 in Dublin, at 50 years of age.
He married Elizabeth Ryland in Morton Hall. Virginia Families says birth 2/22/1627.
Richard Randolph and Elizabeth Ryland had the following child:
+ 10 i. William "Colonel"7 Randolph was born 1649.
Seventh Generation
10. William "Colonel"7 Randolph (Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born in Northamptonshire 1649. William died April 11, 1711 in Turkey Island, VA, at 61 years of age.
He married Mary Isham 1680. Mary was born 1659.
1. Mary was the daughter of Henry Isham and Katherine Banks. Mary died October 19, 1742 at 83 years of age.
2. Grandmother was Joan Busley, (who married Henry Isham Sr.) who was maid of the Wardrobe to Queen Elizabeth.
3. Also direct descendant of Alfred the Great, Edward the Elder - king of England, Henry I - king of France, Anne of Austria, Heingst - king of Saxony AD434. All this per Daughters of American Revolution magazine, May, 1921. Suggested by some that no other couple in history has had more distinguished descendants than William and Mary Randolph.
Bermuda Hundred was established in 1613 by Sir Thomas Dale as the first incorporated town in VA. Johne Rolfe, colony recorder, married Pocahontas there - ceremony conducted by Rev Alex Whitaker. SOURCES: VA Historical Magazine vol 19,14,3,45,85,87 History of Woodford County by William E. Railey. William Randolph of Turkey Island and his Immediate descendants, by Wassell Randolph, Colonial Dames Hobbies magazine 9/1941.
"The Visitation of Northamptonshire" lists Mary as the eldest daughter fo Henry Isham, only surviving son of Wiliam Isham, 3rd son of Sir Euseby Isham of Pytchley." A big man with a hawk nose. BORN AT MORETON MORRELL IN WARWICKSHIRE, ENGLAND-per his tombstone. (Some ref to Yorkshire).
Suggested by some that no other couple in history had a greater number of distinguished descendants than Wm & Mary Randolph.
1. Sixteenth generation in line of descent from King Henry III.
2. William was the Clerk of Henrico County succeeding uncle Henry.
3. William was the U.S. Attorney General from 1670 to 1671.
4. Also a speaker of the House of Burgesses in1698 - He was a loyalist. who came to America in 1672 [PER VIRGINIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY VOL XLV - DEC. 1937]
5. He was the King's Colony council in VA, and Colonial Attorney General.
6. He was a founder of Willliam and Mary College and one of the Trustees.
7. He was known as a tobacco planter, merchant, and colonial official
TURKEY ISLAND homesite is on the north side of the James river about 15 miles from the falls. Once a peninsula connected by land at the South end, ships were required to travel all the way around the 1329-acre property in a time consuming horseshoe shaped loop. In 1934, a 3/4 mile ship channel was cut out by the Army corps of engineers to facilitate water shipping from Newport News to Richmond. The 2 1/2 mile by 1/2 mile wide island is now a National wildlife refuge, called "Presque Isle" or "Presquile", which means peninsula in French. The name was coined after the visiting report of French emigre', Duc de la Rochefoucault Liancort.
The island has been well cared for by the Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. William and his brother built a 2 story frame home approximately 34 feet by 60 feet on the four-room plan with a symmetrical three-bay front elevation, brick "noggings", three-run open well stairs, deck-on-hip roof, two interior brick chimneys, and a raised full basement of Flemish-bond brick, situated on the extreme Southeast corner upon a sharp rising bluff. Old family letters refer to a front porch.
Some historical records suggest that cousin Richard Randolph II of Curles may have been the actual builder-contractor of the house. Conflicting historical records indicate the house was: "an imposing imported English brick mansion with a high cupola. The homesite, built on a rise in the Southwest corner of the island was expertly nestled among stately buckeye, pecan, holly, and oak trees, and must have been a wonderful place to live.
A tiny cemetery is located at the edge of the terraced groves with the remaining gravestones. The Virginia Historical Society revealed the fact that many of the Randolphs were buried on the island, but storms must have obliterated the Randolph sites and headstones. The original William Randolph "The Immigrant" was buried on Turkey Island in 1711. Mary Isham Randolph was buried there in 1742. Also buried on the island in 1742 were William "Councilor" Randolph and Colonel Isham Randolph. Ryland Randolph was buried there about 1803. William and Mary Randolph had 3 children who died as infants, William, Elizabeth, and Joseph who should also be buried on Turkey Island. There is speculation as to whether the current four non-Randolph gravesites are in the proper location or not.
There were two brick 2-room outbuildings with gable roofs to the rear of the main house which are reported to have been slave quarters and a kitchen. In 1801, David Meade Randolph, Federal Marshall of Virginia, sold the farm. In 1952, the property was willed to the Virginia Commission of Game, and subsequently transferred to the U. S. Department of the Interior. According to historical records, Lafayette used the house as headquarters before the siege of Yorktown. And, during the Civil War, the house was said to have been bombarded and occupied by Federal soldiers. The house was used by General Pickett and was reportedly dismantled, piece by piece and carried to Appomattox to be used in the building of a war hospital. After the war, it was rebuilt in the original location. Damaged by fire at a later date, the house was rebuilt again.
COAT OF ARMS IS A "GU UPON A CROSS OR, F MULLETS GU" TWO MOTTOS "NIL ADMIRARI' ABOVE, AND "FARI QUAE SENTIAT" BELOW. Meaning - " Never fear to speak the truth you feel"
COLLIERS ENCYCLOPEDIA says: William Randolph (1651-1711), founder of the family in America, was the son of a Warwickshire country gentleman who came to Virginia about 1672. He established the pattern by which his descendants prospered: vast land ownership combined with the holding of vital and lucrative public offices.
1. William Randolph became king's attorney and clerk and speaker of the House of Burgesses.
2. He acquired 15,000 acres of land, which became the nucleus of the family holdings.
3. He had seven sons, five of whom founded notable lines that became associated with great plantations stretching along the James River from Williamsburg beyond Richmond: William Randolph II of Wilton, Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe, Richard Randolph of Curles, Isham Randolph of Dungeness, and Sir John Randolph of Tazewell Hall.
4. The Randolphs became allied by marriage with the Beverleys, Blands, Bollings, Carters, Carys, Harrisons, Lees, Pages, and other aristocratic families of Virginia and intermarried until their own numerous lines were tangled "like fishhooks." It is suggested that confederate General JEB Stuart and Lady Astor are also descendants.
SOURCES: 1. THE PARSONS HERITAGE: 1651-1989, Part 1. By Mrs. Robert B. Parsons, 1989, pp59, 91-96. Unpublished manuscript is in the possession of Mr. Gary A. Parsons. 2. LIVING DESCENDANTS OF BLOOD ROYAL IN AMERICA: Volume 4, 1881-1960. Published by World Nobility and Peerage, London, England, 1959, pp127, 303, & 360. California State Library at Sutro, San Francisco, CA, call number CS55.A29 3. THE RANDOLPHS: The Story Of A Virginia Family. By H. J. Eckenrode, Bobbs - Merrill Publishing Co., Indianapolis, NY, 1946. A copy is in the possession of Mr. Gary A. Parsons. 4. THE RANDOLPHS OF VIRGINIA: America's Formost Family. By Jonathan Daniels, 1972. Pub. by Doubleday, Garden City, NY. California State Library at Sutro, San Francisco, CA., CS71.R193). 5. SOME PROMINENT VIRGINIA FAMILIES. By Louise Pecquet du Bellet, pp129-164. Published by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1976. Santa Clara Public Library, Santa Clara, CA, call number GR 929.2 P36. 6. CONCISE DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. Published by Charles Scribner & Sons, 1964. 7. PEDIGREE OF THE DESCENDANTS OF HENRY RANDOLPH, I (1623-1673) OF HENRICO COUNTY, VIRGINIA. Manuscript by Wassell Randolph, 1957. CSL Sutro Library, San Francisco, CA, call number #CS71 R193 1957, also on micro-fiche #G3 G1714 8. THE MAGNA CHARTA SURETIES, 1215: The Barons Named in the Magna Charta, 1215 And Some of Their Descendants Who Settled in America During The Early Colonial Years, Fourth Edition, 1993. By Frederick Lewis Weis, Th.D., 1955. Published by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD, 1993. Santa Clara Public Library, Santa Clara, CA, call number GR 929.72 W42. 9. THE ROYAL DESCENTS OF 500 IMMIGRANTS; To The American Colonies or the United States, Who Were Themselves Notable or Left Descendants Notable in American History. By Gary Boyd Roberts, 1993. Published by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD 21202. 10. From the files of Mr. Harold L. Davey, 205 Yoakum Parkway, 1711, Alexandria, VA 22304, CompuServe address: 70243,3066 March 3, 1994.
William "Colonel" Randolph and Mary Isham had the following children:
+ 12 i. William "Councillor"8 Randolph II was born November 1, 1681
Isham RANDOLPH –
Family 1:
1. +Jane RANDOLPH
15. General Isham8 Randolph (William "Colonel"7, Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born February 24, 1685/86. General died November 2, 1742 in Dungeness, at 56 years of age.
He married Jane Rodgers. Jane was born in Oakhill Cemetery, Union Springs, Bullock Co, Al. about 1685. Jane was the daughter of Charles Rodgers and Jane Lilburne. Jane died 1761 at 76 years of age. SOURCES: !SOURCES: 1. THE ROYAL DESCENTS OF 500 IMMIGRANTS; To The American Colonies or the United States, Who Were Themselves Notable or Left Descendants Notable in American History. By Gary Boyd Roberts, 1993. Published by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD 21202. 2. From the files of Mr. Harold L. Davey, 205 Yoakum Parkway, 1711, Alexandria, VA 22304, CompuServe address: 70243,3066 March 3, 1994. Jane was his second wife. He was Educated at William & Mary. Colonial "consul at port". Colony Lt General. Englands Virginia Representative. Colonel in the county militia. House of Burgesses. 10 slaves. Captain of the ship Henrietta on the James River.
His Dungeness estate was adjacent to Rock Castle of Tarleton Fleming on the north Bank, just above licking creek. Dungeness was to be confiscated in 1779 as "Property of a British Subject"; but he turned over to brother's son, Thomas Esten Randolph and avoided it.
General Isham Randolph and Jane Rodgers had the following children:
36 i. Isham9 Randolph Jr. was born about 1714.
37 ii. Isham Randolph II was born in Anniston, Calhoun Co, Al. June 10, 1718. Isham died June 20, 1718 at less than one year of age.
+ 38 iii. Mary Randolph was born about 1718.
+ 39 iv. Jane Randolph was born 1720.
+ 40 v. Anne "Anna" Randolph was born about 1721.
+ 41 vi. Susanna Randolph was born about 1722.
42 vii. Isham Randolph III was born August 08, 1724. Isham died 1771 at 46 years of age. He married Sarah Hargraves 1749. Sea captain.
+ 43 viii. Thomas Isham Randolph was born about 1728.
+ 44 ix. William Randolph was born July 29, 1729.
+ 45 x. Elizabeth "Betty" Randolph was born 1730.
+ 46 xi. Dorothea Randolph was born January 24, 1730/31.
47 xii. Thomas I. Randolph was born in Anniston, Calhoun Co, Al. March 31, 1732. Thomas died May 20, 1732 at less than one year of age.
15. General Isham8 Randolph (William "Colonel"7, Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born February 24, 1685/86. General died November 2, 1742 in Dungeness, at 56 years of age.
__
__|
| |__
|
|--Isham RANDOLPH
|
| __
|__|
|__
Jane RANDOLPH
Father: Isham RANDOLPH

Family 1: Peter JEFFERSON
1. +Martha JEFFERSON
2. Thomas JEFFERSON
________________________________________
__
_Isham RANDOLPH _|
| |__
|
|--Jane RANDOLPH
|
| __
|_________________|
|__
39. Jane9 Randolph (General Isham8, William "Colonel"7, Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born in Dungeness 1720. Jane died March 31, 1776 at 55 years of age.
She married Peter Jefferson 1739. Peter was born about 1707. Peter died about 1757. SOURCES FOR PETER JEFFERSON: 1. THE ROYAL DESCENTS OF 500 IMMIGRANTS; To The American Colonies or the United States, Who Were Themselves Notable or Left Descendants Notable in American History. By Gary Boyd Roberts, 1993. Published by the Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc, 1001 N. Calvert St., Baltimore, MD 21202.
Peter's birth may be 10/3/39. Extremely large and strong man. "Father's family came from Wales, near Mt Snowdon. " TJ, an intimate history by Fawn M. Brodie. . Jane's Gravestone reads: "A discreet and virtuous woman".
Jane Randolph and Peter Jefferson had the following children:
97 i. Jane10 Jefferson was born on (birth date unknown).
+ 98 ii. Thomas Jefferson 3rd President was born April 13, 1743.
+ 99 iii. Mary Jefferson was born about 1744.
100 iv. Elizabeth Jefferson was born about 1746. Mentally retarded.
+ 101 v. Martha Jefferson was born about 1747.
102 vi. Peter Field Jefferson was born about 1748. Peter died 1748 at less than one year of age. Peter died in infancy.
103 vii. Boy Jefferson was born about 1749. Boy died 1749 at less than one year of age. Died at birth.
+ 104 viii. Lucy Jefferson was born about 1750.
105 ix. Anna Scott Jefferson was born about 1751. Anna died July 8, 1828 at 77 years of age. She married Hastings Marks in France. Hastings was born about 1750. Hastings died 1811 at 61 years of age. twin with Randolph Jefferson.
106 x. Randolph Jefferson was born about 1752. He married Anne Jefferson Lewis. Anne was born about 1753. Anne was the daughter of Charles Lewis and Mary Randolph. 1. Randolph and Anne were first cousins. 2 Twin with Anna Scott Jefferson

Martha JEFFERSON
• BIRTH: 1746
• DEATH: 1811
Father: Peter JEFFERSON
Mother: Jane RANDOLPH

Family 1: Dabney CARR
1. +Lucy CARR
2. Peter CARR

_________________
_Peter JEFFERSON _|
| |_________________
|
|--Martha JEFFERSON
|
| _Isham RANDOLPH _
|_Jane RANDOLPH ___|
|_________________
101. Martha10 Jefferson (Jane9 Randolph, General Isham8, William "Colonel"7, Richard6, William5, Robert4, John3 Randall, John2, "John The Elder"1) was born about 1747.
She married Dabney Carr. Dabney was born about 1746. Martha was the sister of President Thomas Jefferson
Martha Jefferson and Dabney Carr had the following children:
220 i. Peter11 Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
221 ii. Samuel Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
222 iii. Dabney Jr Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
223 iv. Polly Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
224 v. Jane Carr was born on (birth date unknown).
225 vi. Lucy Carr was born on (March 7, 1768). She married Richard Terrell.
Lucy CARR
• BIRTH: 7 Mar 1768
• DEATH: 1803
Father: Dabney CARR
Mother: Martha JEFFERSON

Family 1: Richard TERRELL
1. Ann TERRELL born approx. 1790
2. Lucy TERRELL
3. +Martha Jefferson TERRELL
4. Virginia TERRELL
5. Dabney Carr TERRELL
6. Mary Jane TERRELL
________________________________________
_John CARR _______
_Dabney CARR ______|
| |_Barbara OVERTON _
|
|--Lucy CARR
|
| _Peter JEFFERSON _
|_Martha JEFFERSON _|
|_Jane RANDOLPH ___
Ann TERRELL
Father: Richard TERRELL
Mother: Lucy CARR
________________________________________
_Richmond TERRELL IV_
_Richard TERRELL _|
| |_Ann OVERTON ________
|
|--Ann TERRELL 1790
|
| _Dabney CARR ________
|_Lucy CARR _______|
|_Martha JEFFERSON ___

. Robert TYRRELL (1594-1643) b&d.Reading, Berks.[39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Jane BALDWIN; 24/6/1617, Reading, Berkshire [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Margaret TYRRELL (c.1618) of Reading, Berks. [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Thomas WARNER [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Roger TYRRELL (?-1683), Reading, Berkshire;
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d.Milford, CT, USA [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………………+Abigail UFFORD; 1638, Milford, CT, USA [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Robert TYRRELL (1619-1677) of Reading, Berks.;
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d.London [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Marie TYRRELL (1620) of Reading, Berks. [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +John MEWE [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Richmond TERRELL (1624-1680) of Reading, Berks.;
: . . ………….. New Kent Co, VA, USA [39,43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Ann OVERTON (1625) [43]
: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +Elizabeth ? (1631); 1649 [39,43]
ANN TERRELL MARRIED JOSEPH CARR TERRELL
Joseph Carr Terrell b. Dec. 7, 1807 married Ann Terrell on Aug. 3, 1845 in Hanover County, Virginia. Anne was born on May 10, 1817 and died May 21, 1880. They had four children-
1. Charles Thomas W. Terrell b. 1852
Charles Thomas W. Terrell b. 1852 married Fannie Pierce McGehee She was born on Nov. 27, 1852 and was a daughter of Alexander Stewart McGehee 16 Sep 1826 and Mary Jane Thompson 1854 She died at Beaver Dam, Hanover County, Va. On April 29, 1929. They were the parents of five sons.
1. Dr. Emmett Herman Terrell b. May 10, 1878 m. Daisy Ellett
2. Hervey Rosser Terrell b. Aug 20, 1880 d. Jan 10, 1920 married Lucy Vaughan b. Jan 22. 1880 (my Aunt Lucy that cat Miss Lucy was named after. What a great lady she was)
3. Joseph Stuart Terrell b. Oct. 18, 1886 married Y. Winfrey (Uncle Joe)
4. Charles Pierce Terrell b. Sept. 6, 1892 m. Mabel C. Billups
5. Earley Thomas Terrell b. May 13, 1882

Earley Thomas Terrell b. May 13, 1882 married Ophelia Louise Harris (my grandparents who lived in a big house in Ashland, Virginia. They had four children.
1. Earley Thomas Terrell (Uncle Earley who was a psychiatrist and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Married to Eugenia Jackson Beazley (Aunt Jean)
2. Francis Nelson Terrell b. Jan 14, 1915 d. Nov. 5 1972 married Henry Drewry Kerr, Jr.
3. Martha Louise Terrell b. June 22, 1920 married Nathan Lenoir Riddle. They live in Georgia outside of Atlanta
4. James Emmett Terrell –
James Emmett Terrell - b. 1911 Ashland, VA - d. Nov. 7, 1967 Evansville, Indiana
m. to Nannie Belle Clendenin, Greensboro, NC. 1937
Attended William & Mary College, Williamsburg, VA
Was Senior Vice President of Mead Johnson & Co. a division of Bristol Meyers Pharmaceuticals
Elder in the 1st Presbyterian Church; Lions Club; Kiwanis Club; Evansville Country Club
2. Nancy Clendenin Terrell - b. Jan. 12, 1940 in Richmond, Virginia
m. Morton Franklin Longnecker, Jr. on Aug. 27, 1960
son - Gregory Stuart Longnecker
son - Michael Emmett Longnecker
brother - James Emmett Terrell, Jr. Architect in Manhattan, NY
Bachelor of Arts Degree in Education from DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, 1961
Master of Arts Degree in Education from Univ. of Southern Miss. Hattiesburg, Ind. 1980
Romper Room Teacher on ABC - TV - 1968 - 1973
Interviewer for General Electric Cablevision for MS., AL., LA & FL from '73 - 75
Manager Ocean Springs Chamber of Commerce 1976
Master Weaver at Worlds Fair in New Orleans - 1984 (Public Exhibition at Biloxi Cultural Center '82
Journalist for International/Caribbean newspapers 1992 - 2006
Member of the Royal British Virgin Islands Yacht Club & The West End BVI Yacht Club and the Hawaii Yacht Club.

GRANDCHILDREN in order of their birth
Lauren Elizabeth Frazier b. 1988
Taylor Hilty Longnecer b. 1989
Christian Terrell Longnecker b. 1996
Hannah Marie Longnecker b. 1997
Luke Longnecker b. 2005
Liana Angelique Longnecker b. 2007

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