Insert body text here...
. Early Irish and Scottish Kings to Malcolm III.
Ref: Wurts, "Magna Charta"
Ref: Anderson, "Scottish Nation"
King Caradoc's birth-book (pedigree register) records his own as well as others' descent from illustrious ancestors, through thirty-six generations from Aedd Mawr as follows:
• 1. Aedd Mawr, King Edward the Great, who appears to have lived about 1300 B.C., the time of Boaz and Ruth in the Old Testament, had a son Brydain.
• 2. Brydain settled in the island at an early date and being a great legislator as well as a warrior, according to tradition gave his name to the entire island, which was subsequently corrupted into Britain.
• 3. Annyn Tro, son of Brydain, was the father of Selys Hen.
• 4. Selys Hen, the Aged.
• 5. Brwt
• 6. Cymryw
• 7. Ithon
• 8. Gweyrydd
• 9. Peredur
• 10. Llyfeinydd
• 11. Teuged
• 12. Llarian, in whose day London was a considerable town, having been founded in B.C. 1020, or earlier as some hold, at least 270 years before the founding of Rome.
• 13. Ithel
• 14. Enir Fardd
• 15. Calchwynydd
• 16. Llywarch
• 17. Idwal
• 18. Rhun
• 19. Bleddyn
• 20. Morgan
• 21. Berwyn
• 22. Certaint Feddw, an irreclaimable drunkard, deposed by his subjects for setting fire just before harvest to the cornfields of Siluria, now Monmouthshire.
• 23. Brywlais
• 24. Alafon
• 25. Anyn
• 26. Dingad
• 27. Greidiol
• 28. Ceraint
• 29. Meirion
• 30. Arch
• 31. Caid
• 32. Ceri
• 33. Baran
• 34. Llyr (King Lear). He was educated in Rome by Augustus Caesar. Among the "wise sayings" recorded by the Bards we find this attributed to Llyr: "No folly but ends in misery." He was the father of Bran.
• 35. Bran, King of Siluria, also commander of the British fleet. In the year A.D. 36 he resigned the crown to his son Caradoc and became Arch-Druid of the college of Siluria, where he remained some years until called upon to be a hostage for his son. During his seven years in Rome he became the first royal convert to Christianity, and was baptized by the Apostle Paul, as was his son Caradoc and the latter's two sons, Cyllinus and Cynon. Henceforth he was known as Bran the Blessed Sovereign. "He was the first to bring the faith of Christ to the Cymry." His recorded proverb is: "There is no good apart from God." He introduced the use of vellum into Britain.
• 36. Caradoc (Caractacus) was King of Siluria (now Monmouthshire, etc.), where he died. He was born at Trevan, Llanilid, in Glamorganshire. His valiant services to his country have been told in connection with the attempted invasions of the island. The Bards record his wise saying: "Oppression persisted in brings on death." He had three sons and two daughters as follows:
o 1. Cyllin (Cyllinus). See below.
o 2. Lleyn (Linus) the Martyr.
o 3. Cynon
o 4. Eurgain
o 5. Gladys (Claudia), was adopted by Emperor Claudius and became Claudius Britannica. In her 17th year she married Rufus Pudens., a Roman Senator. She died in 97 A.D. She and her two sons and two daughters were instructed by St. Paul in the Christian faith. Around 100 A.D. all the children suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero, who at age 16 succeeded Claudius as Emperor on September 28, 53 A.D.
• 37. Cyllin (St. Cyllin), King of Siluria, was sainted by the early Church of Britain. "He first of the Cymry gave infants names, for before names were not given except to adults, and then from something characteristic in their bodies, minds, or manners." His brother Linus the Martyr, his sister Claudia and her husband Rufus Pudens aided the Apostle Paul in the Christian Church in Rome, as recorded in II Timothy 4:21 and Romans 16:13 (Rufus Pudens and St. Paul are shown to be half-brothers, with the same mother but different fathers. "His mother and mine." She thus appears to have been the mother of an elder son, Paul, by a Hebrew husband, and a younger son, Rufus, by a second marriage with a Roman Christian.)
• 38. Prince Coel, son of Cyllin, was living A.D. 120. (Dr. Anderson, referred to in Wurts, makes him identical with King Coel, son of Marius, but this is evidently a misapprehension.) Prince Coel was the father of King Lleuver Mawr the second Blessed Sovereign.
• 39. Lleuver Mawr (Lucius the Great) , the Second Blessed Sovereign (Cadwalader was the Third Blessed Sovereign), was baptized by his father's first cousin, St. Timothy, who suffered martyrdom at age 90 on August 22, 139. When in 170 A.D. Lucius succeeded to the throne of Britain he became the first Christian king of the world. He married Gladys, daughter of Eurgen, granddaughter of Marius and his wife, the daughter of Boadicea (Victoria). Lucius founded the first church at Llandaff and changed the established religion of Britain from Druidism to Christianity. He died in 181, leaving an only one recorded child, a daughter, Gladys.
• 40. Gladys the Younger, married Cadvan of Cambria, Prince of Wales. They had a daughter Strada the Fair.
• 41. Strada the Fair married after 232, Coel a later king of Colchester, whose parentage is not stated. They had a daughter, Helen.
• 42. Helen (Helena) of the Cross, called also "Britannica", born in 248, died in 328. The arms of Colchester were "a cross with three crowns." She was the first wife of Constantius I. Chlorus (Falvius Valerius Constantius), governor of Dalmatia, appointed Caesar to rule Gaul and Britain March 1, 293. He was the son of Eutropious, a Dardanian nobleman descended from the Gordiani, and his wife, Claudia, daughter of Claudius II. (Marcus Aurelius Flavius Claudius Gothicus), a virtuous and worthy Roman Emperor (268-270), who was a soldier, statesman, and a distinguished officer. Born in Illyria 214, he was trained in the hard school of warfare on the Danube frontier, and died of the Plague in 270, aged 55, whereupon his brother Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus became Emperor. Constantius I became Emperor of Rome in May 305, and in right of his wife, King of England. He was born in 242 and died at Eboracum (present day York, England) on July 25, 306. He married (2) Theodora, daughter of Maximinus, Roman Emperor. The son of Helen and Constantius I. was Constantine the Great.
• 43. Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus), born 265, died in May, 336 or 337, buried in the church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. He was of British birth and education, and is known as the first Christian Emperor. With a British army he set out to put down the persecution of Christians forever. The greatest of all Roman Emperors, he annexed Britain to the Roman Empire and founded Constantinople. In the year 321 he decreed that the Christian Sunday be truly observed as a day of rest. In 325 he assembled the Council of Nicea in Bithynia, Asia Minor, which he attended in person. This Council formulated the Nicene Creed. The following edict of Constantine sets forth the standards of his life: "We call God to witness, the Savior of all men, that in assuming the government we are influenced solely by these two considerations - the uniting of the empire in one faith, and the restoration of peace to a world rent in pieces by the insanity of religious persecution." By his first wife (1) Minervina he was father of Flavius Valerius Crispus Caesar. He married (2) Fausta, sister of his step-mother, Theodora. Fausta and Theodora and their brother Maxentius were children of Maximinus, Roman Emperor (286-305). One writer, Brewer, said he was a giant, eight feet, six inches tall! His son Maxentius, Emperor (310-311), married Valeria, daughter of Galerius, Emperor (310-311), and his wife, Valeria, who was daughter of Diocletian, Emperor (284-305). Fausta and Constantine the Great had three sons: Constantine II., Constantius II., and Constants I., and a daughter, Helen, wife of Julian the Apostate.
See continuation of this lineage elsewhere in Volume I.
Another line of ancestral descent is as follows:
• 1. Marius married the daughter of Boadicea and her husband Prastugasus, ruler of the Iceni, inhabitants of the land now comprising Norfolk and Suffolk.
• 2. King Cole, Coel, or Colius I was the father of Athildis and was also the great grandfather of Aioffe.
• 3. Athildis
• 4. Child of Athildis, parent of Aioffe.
• 5. Aioffe, 120th Monarch of Ireland, married Fiacha Trabhteine. He died in 322.
• 6. Muredach Tireach, 122th Monarch of Ireland.
• 7. Eochaidh Muigh Meadhoin, 124th Monarch of Ireland.
• 8. Niall Mor, known as Niall of the Nine Hostages, 126th Monarch of Ireland.
• 9. Eoghanr Owen
• 10. Muredach
• 11. Fergus Mor Mac Earca, 131st Monarch of Ireland, in 498 A.D., with five of his brothers, went into Scotland with a complete army to assist his grandfather Loarn, King of Dalriada, in overcoming his enemies, the Picts. Upon the King's death, Fergus was unanimously elected king, and became the first absolute king of Scotland, of the Milesian race.
• 12. Donart
• 13. Eochaidh
• 14. Gabhran
• 15. Edhan
• 16. Eochaidh Buidhe
• 17. Donald Breac
• 18. Donart
• 19. Aodh (Hugh) Fionn
• 20. Eochaidh Rinnamail
• 21. Alpin, who died in 834.
• 22. Kenneth MacAlpin, who died in 854.
• 23. Constantine, who died in 878.
• 24. Donald (Donal IV. or Domnall), who died in 903, King of Scotland, 893-904.
• 25. Malcolm I, who died in 958, King of Scotland 943, acquired Cumbria 945 from Edmund, the Saxon king of England. On the abdication of Constantine III., Malcolm succeeded to the throne in 944. In 945, Edmund, the Saxon king of England, ceded Cumberland and part of Westmoreland to him, on condition that he would defend that northern territory, and become the ally of England. Edred, the brother and successor of Edmund, accordingly applied for, and obtained the aid of Malcolm against Anlaf, King of Northumberland, which latter country he wasted, and carried off the inhabitants with their cattle. In the time of Malcolm I., the people of the province of Moray, in the northeast of Scotland, were a mixed race, formed of Scandinavian settlers, with Scottish and Pictish Celts. Turbulent and rebellious, they were continually at war with the sovereign, and an insurrection having occurred under Cellach, maormer of Garmorgan, Malcolm marched north to reduce them to obedience. He killed Cellach, but was, some time thereafter, assassinated in 953 at Ulurn after a reign of nine years. He was succeeded by Indulph, the son of Constantine II., and Indulph had as his successor, Duff, the son of Malcolm, who ascended the throne in 961. Malcolm I. had two sons as follows:
o 1. Kenneth III See below.
o 2. Dub
• 26. Kenneth III, who died in 994. He succeeded as King of Scotland in 971, after an intermediate possessor named Culen, son of Indulph. Wife unknown. They had a son, Malcolm II.
(Note: According to J. Fines, "Who's Who in the Middle Ages," pg. 158, Macbeth's mother was a sister of Malcolm II., instead of his daughter, as shown below.)
• 27. Malcolm II., born about 954, died November 25, 1034. He succeeded to the throne in 1003, and had a troubled reign of about thirty years. He defeated Kenneth IV., at Monievaird in Strathearn, and in consequence became king. His annoyance came from the Danes who, in previous reigns, had made several attempts to effect a settlement in Scotland, but had been defeated in all of them. They had secured a firm footing in England, and the year after Malcolm's accession to the throne, they commenced the most formidable preparations, under their celebrated king, Sweyn, for a new expedition to the Scottish coasts. Malcolm finally defeated this initial invasion in 1010. There was a second attempt made to gain a foothold in Northern England, but it too was defeated. In 1014, another Danish force landed on the coast of Buchan. The Danes on this occasion were led by Sweyn's celebrated son, Canute, afterwards King of England and Denmark, and again they experienced a signal overthrow. A treaty was drawn up which stipulated that the Danes agreed to quit every part of the Scottish coasts, and this was followed by the final departure, the same year, of these invaders from Scotland. Malcolm was next engaged in war with the Northumbrians, and, having in 1018, led his army to Carham, near Werk, on the south bank of the Tweed River, he was met there by Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland, when a desperate battle took place. The victory was claimed by Uchtred, who was, soon after, assassinated, when on his way to pay his obeisance to the great Canute. He killed Kenneth III., son of Dub. He had no sons. Having succeeded as King of Alba in 1005, Malcolm II. secured Lothian by the battle of Carham about 1016 and about the same time obtained Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan, thus forming the kingdom of Scotland. He had at least three children:
o 1. Bethoc (Beatrice). See below.
o 2. Doda (Donada), the younger daughter, married Synel, Lord of Glammis. Another source names the husband Finlaec, mormaer (sub-king) of Moray. They had a son, Macbeth, born about 1005, who died on August 15, 1057, killed by Malcolm III., after Macbeth killed Duncan, Malcolm's father. This same source has Macbeth marrying about 1032, Gruoch. Macbeth was the model on whom Shakespeare based his famous character in "Macbeth."
• 28. Bethoc (Beatrice), the eldest daughter of Malcolm II, married Crinan the Thane, Lord of the Isles, hereditary Abbot of Dunkeld, born in 975, died in 1045. She was the aunt of Macbeth. They had a son, Duncan.
• 29. Duncan I. (Maldred), King of Scotland, was slain by his cousin, Macbeth, local chief of Moray in 1041. One source puts his death on August 14, 1040. He was also the King of Strathclyde. He married about 1030, a cousin (some say the sister) of Siward, Earl of Northumbria. Wurts records that he married Algitha, daughter of Uchtred, Earl of Northumberland and his wife, Elgifu, daughter of King Ethelred II. They had the following children:
o 1. Malcolm III See below.
o 2. Donald Bane, born about 1033, ascended November 13, 1093, at the death of his older brother, deposed, May 1094, restored November 12, 1094 and finally deposed October 1097. During his 2nd reign he is said to have shared the government with Edmund, son of Malcolm III and Margaret. There was issue: Bethoc.
o 3. Maelmuire.
o 4. Cospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, born 1040, died 1075 (according to Wurts). He had a daughter Waldeve of Dunbar who married Sigfrid. They had a daughter, Gunnild of Dunbar, who married Uchtred, Lord of Galloway, who died in 1174. They had a son, Roland, Lord of Galloway, who died in 1200, and who married Elena, daughter of Richard de Moreville and his wife, Avice of Lancaster. They had a son Alan MacDonal, Lord of Galloway, at Runnemede in 1215, died in 1223. He had a daughter Helen MacDonal, who married Roger de Quincy. See the continuation of this lineage elsewhere in Volume II.
• 30. Malcolm III, grandson of Malcolm II., King of Scotland, called Canmore (Caen Mor, or great head) because of the large size of his head, was born in 1024, before his father was called to the throne, and he became king at the time of his victory over Macbeth in 1039, remaining so until his death in 1093. He was buried at Icelmkill. He married about 1059 (1) Ingibiorg, and about 1069 (2) Margaret (St. Margaret), daughter of Edward the Exile (Etheling). Margaret died in Edinburgh Castle of grief at the death of her husband, November 16, 1093, and was buried at Dumfermline. In 1250 Margaret was declared a saint and on June 19, 1259 her body was taken from the original stone coffin and placed in a shrine of pinewood set with gold and precious stones near the high altar. In Scotland the grace cup is called St. Margaret's blessing. When Scotland became Protestant the remains of St. Margaret and her husband, Malcolm III., were carried to Spain and placed in the Escorial, built in her honor by King Philip II, of Spain. There was issue by the first marriage with Ingibiorg as follows:
o 1. Duncan II., born about 1060, King of Scotland, ascended May 1094, died November 12, 1094. He married about 1090 Octreda of Dunbar. They had a son, William.
o 2. Malcolm
From the second marriage, between Malcolm and Margaret, they had the following children:
1. Edward, died November 16, 1093, slain with his father near Alnwick.
2. Edgar, born about 1074, King of Scotland, ascended 1097, died in January 1107. He was absent from Scotland with William Rufus in England, about 1099-1100; with Henry I. in England, about 1101-1102.
4. Ethelred, who was bred a churchman and became Aldee, abbot of Dunkeld.
5. Alexander I., born about 1077, King of Scotland, ascended January 8, 1107, died April 25, 1124. He was absent from Scotland in the invasion of Wales in the summer of 1114, and in cooperation with Henry I of England.
6. David I. (St. David), King of Scotland. See below.
7. Matilda (Maud) of Scotland. See below.
8. Mary, died May 31, 1115, married Eustace, Count of Boulogne.
• 31. Matilda (Maud) of Scotland married Henry I, King of England, son of William the Conqueror. This marriage united the Saxon and the Norman dynasties.
See the continuation of this lineage in the Line of English Royalty in Volume I.
Malcolm III and his wife Lady Margaret also had another son, David I., in the direct lineage.
31. David I. (St. David), King of Scotland from 1124 until his death May 24, 1153, was hallowed by the people but never canonized. David was a wise and just king, born probably about 1085, ascended April 25, 1124. He shared his mother's wisdom and love of civilization. He continued to found Augustinian monasteries, to strength Roman Christianity, and he much favored the Cistercians. He founded burghs of independent townsmen; and bishoprics; established the office of chancellor to issue official documents bearing the royal seal, and he made Norman feudal law apply to Scotland. His education and his favorites were English; but politically he aimed not merely at independence of the English king, but at control of the Northern shires of England. He gained control of Cumberland and Northumberland and the tyrannous William Comyn, Bishop of Durham. He became Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton and acquired a dangerous claim to Northumberland by his marriage. In 1113 he married Matilda, daughter of Waltheof, Count of Northampton and Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland, and Judith, his wife, a niece of William the Conqueror. They had the following children:
• 1. Malcolm
• 2. Claricia
• 3. Hodierna
• 4. Henry of Scotland, Prince of Scotland, Earl of Northumberland and Huntingdon. See below.
When Stephen usurped the English crown, David had a good excuse for repeated invasions on the pretext of supporting his niece, Matilda the Empress. The Archbishop of York, old Thurstan, rallied the countryside and won a victory at Northallerton over David's undisciplined hordes (1138). It was called the Battle of the Standard because the English erected in a frame the mast of a ship on which they hung the banners of St. Peter the Apostle, St. John of Beverley and St. Wilfrid of Ripon (1138). David accompanied Matilda on her flight to Winchester (1140) and it was from him his great-nephew, the future Henry II., received knighthood at the age of sixteen.
• 32. Henry of Scotland, Prince of Scotland and 9th Earl of Huntingdon, died in June 12, 1152, before his father, to the universal grief of all Scotland. He married Ada Warren, daughter of William de Warren II (Warenne) and his wife, Isabel Vermandois, and sister of William, Earl of Warren (Warenne) and Surrey. Henry was the ninth Earl of Northumberland. They had the following children:
o 1. Malcolm IV, King of Scotland, (The Maiden) 10th Earl of Huntingdon, born probably in 1141. He succeeded his grandfather, May 24, 1153, a year after his father's death, being only twelve years of age. He died without issue, December 9, 1165, and was succeeded by his brother, William.
o 2. William I., the Lion, King of Scotland, 11th Earl of Huntingdon, taking up arms in favor of Prince Henry, so exasperated King Henry II., that he immediately sent an army against him, and promised that the castle and earldom should be restored to the family of St. Liz, the rightful heirs; whereupon Simon St. Liz, Earl of Northampton, son and heir of Simon, last Earl of Huntingdon, of that family, levied troops, and appeared before the castle, when William of Scotland, finding it untenable, made a surrender to St. Liz of that fortress, which the King of England ordered to be demolished, but nevertheless, Simon de St. Liz was restored to the Earldom of Huntingdon, about 1174, which he enjoyed for the remainder of his life. He d.s.p., in 1184, whereupon King Henry II. restored the Earldom to King William, of Scotland, and that monarch transferred it to his younger brother, David. From the treaty of Falaise, December 8, 1174, to King Richard's quit-claim of December 5, 1189, William acknowledged the King of England as overlord of Scotland. William married Ermengarde Beaumont, and was the father of Alexander II, and he was also the father of many children as follows, the first four were issue from his wife, Ermengarde:
1. Alexander II, the eldest son and his successor as King of Scotland. He was the father of Alexander III, King of Scotland.
2. Margaret, married Hugh de Burgh
3. Isabella, married Roger Bigod, Earl of Richmond.
4. Marjorie, married Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke.
The following children, the last five being competitors for the crown of Scotland in 1291, were illegitimate issue:
1. Robert of London
3. Isabella, married (1) Robert de Brus (Robert Bruce), and (2) Robert de Roos (Ros), son of Everard de Roos (Ros) and his wife Rose (Roysia) Trusbut. They had two sons as follows:
1. Robert de Roos (Ros).
2. William de Roos (Ros), father of Robert de Roos, father of William Roos.
4. Ada, married Patrick, Earl of Dunbar. They had Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, father of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, father of Patrick, Earl of Dunbar.
5. Margaret, married Eustace de Vesci. They had William de Vesci, father of William de Vesci.
6. Aufrica, married William de Say. They had William, father of Aufrica, mother of Agatha, mother of Roger de Mandeville.
7. Henry Golightly, married ________, They had Patrick Golightly.
o 3. David of Scotland. See below.
o 4. Ada of Scotland, married Florence III., Count of Holland. They were ancestors of a line of Counts of Holland, down to the 5th generation, Count John I. of Holland, who married Elizabeth Plantaganet, daughter of King Edward I.
o 5. Margaret of Scotland (of Huntingdon), married (1) Conan le Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, and (2) Humphrey de Bohun IV. They had a son, Henry de Bohun, the Surety of the Magna Charta. She also married (3) Sir R. de la Pole. She was the ancestor of Alicia, then Henry, then Robert Pinkeny. See continuation of this lineage elsewhere in the Bohun Line in Volume II.
The earl died in 1153, succeeded by his son, Malcolm.
• 33. David of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon, was knighted by King Henry II. in 1170. He accompanied King Richard I. to the Holy Land, with 500 men in his train; but upon his return, his fleet being scattered, he was made prisoner of the Egyptians, and eventually redeemed by the Venetians. He married in August 1190 Maud Keveloik, Countess of Huntingdon, eldest daughter of Hugh de Keveliok, Earl of Chester, and sister and co-heir of Ralph Keveloik, Earl of Chester. David died June 17, 1219 at Yardley, in Northamptonshire and was buried at Sawtrey Abbey. They had the following children:
o 1. John le Scot, Earl of Huntingdon, who, in the right of his mother, became likewise Earl of Chester. He died in 1237, without issue, when the Earldom of Huntingdon became extinct, but his great possessions devolved upon his sisters as co-heirs. He married as her first husband, Helen, eldest daughter of Llewelyn the Great.
o 2. Margaret of Huntingdon. See below.
o 3. Isabel of Huntingdon, married Robert Bruce V., 4th Baron of Annadale. He was the son of William Bruce, 3rd Baron of Annadale, and had large estates in both England and Scotland. He died in 1245 and she died in 1252. They had a son, Robert Bruce, Lord of Annadale, born in 1210. He was an able and strenuous baron, and acted a great part in the reign of King Alexander III. of Scotland. In 1255, he was appointed one of the fifteen Regents of Scotland. In 1284, he was one of the Magnates Scotiae who consented to accept Margaret of Norway as their sovereign, on the demise of Alexander III. He contested unsuccessfully, in 1291, for the throne of Scotland. King Edward I., the arbitrator, decided in favor of John Balliol. He married in May 1240 (1) Isabel (Isabella) Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 3rd Earl of Gloucester, and a Surety of the Magna Charta, born November 2, 1226, and living July 10, 1264. He succeeded his father in 1245 and his mother in 1251. On April 19, 1267 he, together with his son, swore fealty to the King and Prince Edward. He married before May 10, 1275, (2) Christian d'Irevy, daughter of William d'Irevy. Robert Bruce, at the age of eighty-five, died at Lochmaben Castle in 1295 and was buried April 17, 1295 in Guisborough Priory. Robert and Isabella had the following children:
1. Robert Bruce, his heir and successor, Lord of Annadale. He married Margaret, daughter of Neil Carrick and his wife, Margaret, daughter of Walter, high steward of Scotland, and they had ten children, the eldest of whom was Robert I, the Bruce, King of Scotland, crowned in March 1306. During the reign of King Edward II, Bruce gradually reduced the English hold on Scotland, until the English army in 1314 finally withdrew at the battle of Bannockburn. From time to time war with England continued until a truce was signed in 1323 and finally after King Edward III had been King of England for a year, in 1328, Robert Bruce was formally recognized as King of Scotland. His first wife was Isabel Mar, daughter of Earl Donald, and his second wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Richard de Burgh. By his first wife he had Marjory Bruce, wife of Walter Stewart, who had King Robert II, and from him a son, King Robert III, and from him a son, King James I, born in 1394, died February 20, 1437, married Joan Beaufort, the granddaughter of King Edward III.
2. Bernard Bruce, of Conington and Exton.
3. Christian Bruce, married Patrick Dunbar, 7th Earl of March, ancestress to a long line of Earls of March.
4. Ada of Huntingdon, married Henry de Hastings, Lord Hastings. They had Henry de Hastings, one of the competitors for the Scottish throne in the time of Edward I., who in turn had John Hastings.
5. Maud of Huntingdon, died unmarried.
Clan Stewart (Royal Stewart)
The Royal Stewart line originated with Walter, son of an Anglo- Norman baron who came to Scotland in the 12th century, and who was appointed High Steward of the royal household by David I. This office was made hereditary by King Malcolm IV.
The surname `Stewart' is an occupational one, taken from `Steward' -- the official in charge of the household and treasury, whether of the king or of some court-holding earl or bishop.
James, 5th High Steward, supported Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce in their struggle for Scottish independence.
William, 6th High Steward, married Princess Marjory, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and from them are descended the Royal House of Stewart.
The male line of the Royal Stewarts ended with the death, in 1807, of Prince Henry, Cardinal Duke of York, brother of Prince Charles Edward. The Cardinal of York left his personal heirlooms, including Scottish Coronation Ring and chivalric orders which always report to the Sovereign, to George III, thus tacitly nominating him `Tanist' of the old Royal line and heir ot the Stewarts' rights to the throne.
Queen Victoria thus rightly laid down that, "as Representative of the Family of Bonnie Prince Charlie, no one could be a greater Jacobite than herself."
The strengths and weaknesses of the Stewart dynasty, their self- sacrificing leadership mingled with unremitting obstinacies, brought no little of the clan spirit into national history.
Direct descendants from Robert II – King of Scotland
Robert II – King of Scotland (1316 – 1390) m. Elizabeth More/Mure (1320-1355)
ROBERT II, (only child of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, (continued from above) and Marjorie Bruce, dau. of ROBERT I), b 2 March, 1315-16, Steward of Scotland, 9 April, 1326, Regent 1335-41, and 1346-57, created Earl of Atholl, 16 Feb. 1341-2, Earl of Strathearn before 1357-8, and crowned at Scone, 26 March, 1371. He m 1stly (dispensation dd 22 Nov. 1347), Elizabeth (d ante 1355), dau. of Sir Adam Mure, of Rowallan. By her he had previously had issue,
1a JOHN, Earl of Carrick, 1368, s to the throne as ROBERT III.
2a Walter, jure uxoris Earl of Fife, m Isabel, Countess of Fife, widow of Sir William Ramsay, and dau. and heiress of Duncan Earl of Fife, and d.s.p. after 14 Aug. 1362.
3a Robert, 1st Duke of Albany, b ca 1340, Earl of Menteith by m, and Earl of Fife and Earl of Buchan by entail, created Duke of Albany, 1398, and Earl of Atholl for the life of Robert III 1403, Great Chamberlain 1383-1407, Governor of the realm during part of the reigns of Robert II and III, Regent from the death of Robert III to his own death, 3 Sept 1420, m 1stly, (by dispensation. 9 Sept. 1361), Margaret, Countess of Menteith (d 1380), widow of Sir John Moray, Lord of Bothwell, Thomas, 13th Earl of Mar, and Sir John Drummond of Concraig, and dau. of Sir John Graham (and Mary, Countess of Menteith), and had issue,
1b Murdoch, 2nd Duke of Albany, and Regent of Scotland, who was attainted and beheaded 25 May, 1425. He m 17 Feb. 1391-92, Isabel, eldest dau. and co-heiress of Duncan, Earl of Lennox, and had issue, with a dau. Isobel, m Sir Walter Buchanan of that Ilk, four sons,
1c Robert, Master of Fife, d.v.p., s.p. before July 1421.
2c Walter (Sir) of Lennox, tried and beheaded at Stirling, 24 May, 1425, was ancestor of the Lords Avandale, Ochiltree, Methven, St. Colme etc. (see MORAY, E.).
3c Alexander (Sir), beheaded 25 May, 1425.
4c James (Sir), fled to Ireland, d.s.p. 1451, ancestor of the Stewarts of Ardvorlich (see that family).
1b Janet, betrothed (20 July, 1372) as a child to David, infant son of Sir Bartholomew de Loen and Lady Philippa Moubray, but it is doubtful if the m took place.
2b Maria, m Sir William Abernethy of Saltoun, and had issue.
3b Margaret, m 1stly, Sir John Swinton, of Swinton (see that family) and had issue. He was k 14 Sept. 1401. She m 2ndly, Robert Stewart of Lorn (see MORAY, E.), and had further issue.
4b Isobel, m 1stly, Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross, and had issue. She m 2ndly, Walter Haliburton, of Dirleton, and had further issue.
Robert, Duke of Albany m 2ndly, Muriella (d 1449), dau. of Sir William Keith, Marischal of Scotland (see KINTORE, E.), and by her had issue,
2b John, 3rd Earl of Buchan on the resignation of his father, 20 Sept. 1406, and Chamberlain of Scotland soon afterwards, head of the Scottish auxiliaries in France 1420, Constable of France, fell at Verneuil, 17 Aug. 1424. He m 1413, Elizabeth (who 2ndly, Sir Thomas Stewart, and 3rdly, William, Earl of Orkney), dau. of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas, and had issue, a dau.,
1c Margaret, m 1436, George, 1st Lord Seton and had issue (see MONTGOMERIE, Earls of Eglinton & Winton).
3b Andrew, d.s.p. before 1413.
4b Robert, de jure Earl of Ross, living 1431, d.s.p.
5b Marjory, m Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochaw, 1st Lord Campbell (see CAMPBELL, Dukes of Argyll), and had issue.
6b Elizabeth, m Malcolm Fleming of Biggar and Cumbernauld, and had issue. He d 1440.
4a Alexander, Earl of Buchan, 1374, and jure uxoris, Earl of Ross, known as “The Wolf of Badenoch” m Euphemia, Countess of Ross, widow of Sir Walter Leslie, and dau. and heiress of William, 5th Earl of Ross, and d.s.p. 24 July, 1394, leaving several illegitmate children. He was ancestor of the Stewarts of Fothergill, STEWART-MEIKLEJOHN of Edradynate (see that family) and STEWART-WILSON of Balnakeilly (see that family).
1a Margaret, m (by dispensation 14 June, 1350), John Macdonald, Lord of the Isles. He d 1387, having had issue (see MACDONALD, Lords Macdonald).
2a Marjorie, m 1stly (Papal Dispensation, 11 July, 1371), her cousin, John Dunbar, who was created Earl of Moray, 9 March 1371-72. He d ca 1390, leaving issue (see DUNBAR of Mochrum, Bt.). She m 2ndly ca 1403, Sir Alexander Keith, of Grandtown.
3a Jean, m 1stly, Sir John Keith, 2ndly, 1379, Sir John Lyon, Chamberlain of Scotland, ancestor of the Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne (see that family), and 3rdly, Sir James Sandilands, of Calder, ancestor of the Lords Torphichen (see that family).
4a Isabella, m 1stly (dispensation 24 Sept.1371), 2nd Earl of Douglas (d.s.p. 19 Aug. 1388). She m 2ndly, before 1390, Sir John Edmonstone (see EDMONSTONE, Bt.) and had issue, a son.
5a Elizabeth, m before 7 Nov. 1372, Sir Thomas Hay, Constable of Scotland (who d July, 1406), an ancestor of the Earls of Erroll (see HAY, Earls of Erroll).
21. Robert II, m 2ndly (Papal Dispensation 2 May, 1355), Euphemia (d 1387), widow of John Randolph, Earl of Moray, and dau. of Hugh, Earl of Ross, and by her had issue,
5a David, Earl Palatine of Strathearn, and Earl of Caithness, b ca 1356, and d before 1389, leaving issue, an only dau. and heiress Euphemia, COUNTESS PALATINE OF STRATHEARN and Countess of Caithness, which latter Earldom she resigned to her uncle, Walter Stewart. She m ante Dec. 1406, her cousin, Sir Patrick Graham of Kilpont (k 10 Aug. 1412), son of Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine, and d Oct. 1415, having had issue,
1b Malise, 3rd Earl of Strathearn, who was during his minority divested of that Earldom on the pretence that it was a male fee and was created instead EARL OF MENTEITH 6 Sept. 1427 (see GRAHAM, Dukes of Montrose, and BURKE's Dormant and Extinct Peerages).
1b Euphemia, m 1stly, 1425, Archibald, 5th Earl of Douglas, and had issue. He d 26 June, 1439. She m 2ndly, 1440, James, 1st Lord Hamilton and d 1468-69, leaving further issue (see HAMILTON, Dukes of Abercorn),. He d 14 Nov. 1479.
2b Elizabeth, m. Sir John Lyon of Glamis, ancestor of the Earls of Strathmore and Kinghorne (see that family).
6a Walter, Earl of Caithness, on resignation of his niece Euphemia, 1390, and created Earl of Atholl 1409. He m before 19 Oct. 1378, Margaret, dau. and heiress of Sir David de Barclay, Lord of Brechin, in whose right he was Lord of Brechin. He was the chief organiser of the conspiracy to which JAMES I fell a victim, and for which he suffered death and attainder 26 March, 1437. He had two sons,
1b David, d.v.p. and left issue,
1c Robert Stewart (Sir), who suffered for complicity in the same crime 1437.
2b Alan, Earl of Caithness, in whose favour his father resigned that Earldom, d.v.p., unm 1431, k at Inverlochy.
6a Egidia, m 1387, Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale, natural son of Archibald, 3rd Earl of Douglas, and had issue.
7a Katherine (or Jean or Elizabeth), m 1380, Sir David Lindsay, 1st Earl of Crawford and had issue (see LINDSAY, Earls of Crawford & Balcarres).
Robert II also had several illegitimate sons,
7a Sir John, ancestor of the Marquesses of Bute (see that family).
8a Thomas, Archdeacon of St Andrews and Dean of Dunkeld.
9a Alexander, Canon of Glasgow.
10a Sir John, of Dundonald, k. 1425.
11a Alexander, of Inverlunan.
12a James, of Kinfauns.
13a Sir John, ancestor of the Stewarts of Cardney (see BURKE’s LG 1952 Edn., STEUART MENZIES of Culdares).
Robert II d at his Castle of Dundonald, 19 Apri1, 1390, and was s. by his eldest son, John Stewart, Earl of Carrick, as,
20. Marjory Stewart – Princess of Scotland (1344 – 1417) m. Eoin Mor MacDonald – 7th
Lord of the Isles
19. Donald MacDonald – Lord of the Isles
18. Alexander MacDonald – Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross
17. Hugh MacDonald – d. 1566
16. Donald Galloch MacDonald –
15. Donald Gorum MacDonald – d. 1587 – Lord of Isles and of State
14. Archibald MacDonald – Lord of State Manor, Antrin
13. Sir Donald MACDONALD d. 1643 - Lord of State, First Baronet
12. Sir James MACDONALD d. 18 Dec 1678 Lord of State 2nd Baronet
11. Marian MACDONALD m. Patrick MACGREGOR - Chief Of Clan MacGregor
10. Thomas MackGehee b. abt 1645, Scotland d. aft 27 Jul 1727, Prince William Co., Va.
m. Mary Mumford in 1688
9. William McGehee
8. John McGehee Sr. b. 1725
7. John McGehee – b. 1748
6. Garrett Connor McGehee
5. Alexander Stewart McGehee b. 1826 m. Mary Jane Thompson
4. Fannie Pierce McGehee b.1852 m. Charles W. Thomas Terrell b. 1852
3. Earley Thomas Terrell b. 1882 m. Ophelia Louise Harris b. 1884
2. James Emmett Terrell b. 1911 m. Nannie Belle Clendenin b. 1910
1. Nancy Clendenin Terrell b. 1940
Our line continues from Alpin King of Scots in the next column but I thought it would be more interesting for you if you saw how old the actual line is so it is traced back to
1300 BC in the column to your right. Have fun. This is great reading. We often fly the Red Lion of Scotland on our vessel, Swan Song.
William I of Scotland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
William the Lion
The banner of King WilliamWilliam I "the Lion" ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 – December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567-1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.
In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully-built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the English.
Traditionally, William founded Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. Interestingly, he was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.
The "Lion" became attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fluery counter-fluery' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland; the British Monarch when in Scotland honors the display of Scotland's Royal Standard due to the fact they share a Common ancestor with the Scots. However, this common ancestor is not William the Lion, but William's Great Grandfather, King Malcolm III,who was also known as "Canmore" meaning "Great Head". He was the husband of Queen Saint Margaret,and also the Great Grandfather of English King Henry II. The rampant lion within the 2nd quarter of Great Britain's Royal arms represents their common ancestry with the Scots.
William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.
William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174 against Henry II. In 1174, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops and taken in chains to Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. At the end of that time the new English king, Richard the Lionheart, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks. Richard needed the money to take part in the Third Crusade.
Due to the terms of the Treaty of Falaise, Henry II had the right to choose William's bride. William was married to Ermengarde de Beaumont, a granddaughter of King Henry I of England, at Woodstock Palace in 1186. Edinburgh Castle was her dowry. The marriage was not very successful, and it was many years before an heir, Alexander, was born. William and Ermengarde's children were:
Margaret (1193-1259), married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
Isabella (1195-1253), married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
Alexander II of Scotland (1198-1249), reigned 1214-1249.
Marjorie (1200-1244), married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king.
OUR earliest literature was history and poetry. Indeed, we might say poetry only, for in those far-off times history was always poetry, it being only through the songs of the bards and minstrels that history was known. And when I say history I do not mean history as we know it. It was then merely the gallant tale of some hero's deeds listened to because it was a gallant tale.
Now the people who lived in the British Isles long ago were not English. It will be simplest for us to call them all Celts and to divide them into two families, the Gaels and the Cymry. The Gaels lived in Ireland and in Scotland, and the Cymry in England and Wales.
It is to Ireland that we must go for the very beginnings of our Literature, for the Roman conquest did not touch Ireland, and the English, who later conquered and took possession of Britain, hardly troubled the Green Isle. So for centuries the Gaels of Ireland told their tales and handed them on from father to son undisturbed, and in Ireland a great many old writings have been kept which tell of far-off times. These old Irish manuscripts are perhaps none of them older than the eleventh century, but the stories are far, far older. They were, we may believe, passed on by word of mouth for many generations before they were written down, and they have kept the feeling of those far-off times.
It was from Ireland that the Scots came to Scotland, and when they came they brought with them many tales. So it comes about that in old Scottish and in old Irish manuscripts we find the same stories.
Many of the manuscripts which are kept in Ireland have never been translated out of the old Irish in which they were written, so they are closed books to all but a few scholars, and we need not talk about them. But of one of the great treasures of old Irish literature we will talk. This is the Leabhar Na h-Uidhre, or Book of the Dun Cow. It is called so because the stories in it were first written down by St. Ciaran in a book made from the skin of a favorite cow of a dun color. That book has long been lost, and this copy of it was made in the eleventh century.
The name of this old book helps us to remember that long ago there was no paper, and that books were written on vellum made from calf-skin and upon parchment made from sheep-skin. It was not until the twelfth century that paper began to be made in some parts of Europe, and it was not until the fifteenth century that paper books became common in England.
In the Book of the Dun Cow, and in another old book called the Book of Leinster, there is written the great Irish legend called the Tain Bo Chuailgne or the Cattle Raid of Cooley.
This is a very old tale of the time soon after the birth of Christ. In the book we are told how this story had been written down long, long ago in a book called the Great Book Written on Skins. But a learned man carried away that book to the East. Then, when many years had passed, people began to forget the story of the Cattle Raid. So the Chief minstrel called all the other minstrels together to ask if any of them knew the tale. But none of them could remember more than a few verses of it. Therefore the chief minstrel asked all his pupils to travel into far countries to search for the rest which was lost.
What followed is told differently in different books, but all agree in this, that a great chief called Fergus came back from the dead in order to tell the tale, which was again written down.
The story is one of the beautiful Queen Meav of Connaught. For many years she had lived happily with her husband and her children. But one day the Queen and her husband began to argue as to which of them was the richer. As they could not agree, they ordered all their treasures to be brought before them that they might be compared.
So first all their wooden and metal vessels were brought. But they were both alike.
Then all their jewels, their rings and bracelets, necklets and crowns were brought, but they, too, were equal.
Then all their robes were brought, crimson and blue, green, yellow, checked and striped, black and white. They, too, were equal.
Next from the fields and pastures great herds of sheep were brought. They, too, were equal.
Then from the green plains fleet horses, champing steeds came. Great herds of swine from forest and glen were brought. They, too, were equal.
Lastly, droves and droves of cattle were brought. In the King's herd there was a young bull named White-horned. When a calf, he had belonged to Meav's herd, but being very proud, and thinking it little honor to be under the rule of a woman, he had left Meav's herd and joined himself to the King's. This bull was very beautiful. His head and horns and hoofs were white, and all the rest of him was red. He was so great and splendid that in all the Queen's herd there was none to match him.
Then Meav's sorrow was bitter, and calling a messenger, she asked if he knew where might be found a young bull to match with White- horned.
The messenger replied that he knew of a much finer bull called Donn Chuailgne, or Brown Bull of Cooley, which belonged to Dawra, the chief of Ulster.
"Go then,' said Meav, "and ask Dawra to lend me the Bull for a year. Tell him that he shall be well repaid, that he shall receive fifty heifers and Brown Bull back again at the end of that time. And if Dawra should seem unwilling to lend Brown Bull, tell him that he may come with it himself, and that he shall receive here land equal to his own, a chariot worth thirty- six cows, and he shall have my friendship ever after."
So taking with him nine others, the messenger set out and soon arrived at Cooley. And when Dawra heard why the messengers had come, he received them kindly, and said at once that they should have Brown Bull.
Then the messengers began to speak and boast among themselves. "It was well," said one, "that Dawra granted us the Bull willingly, otherwise we had taken it by force."
As he spoke, a servant of Dawra came with food and drink for the strangers, and hearing how they spoke among themselves, he hastily and in wrath dashed the food upon the table, and returning to his master repeated to him the words of the messenger.
Then was Dawra very wrathful. And when, in the morning, the messengers came before him asking that he should fulfill his promise, he refused them.
So, empty-handed, the messengers returned to Queen Meav. And she, full of anger, decided to make good the boastful words of her messenger and take Brown Bull by force.
Then began a mighty war between the men of Ulster and the men of Connaught. And after many fights there was a great battle in which Meav was defeated. Yet was she triumphant, for she had gained possession of the Brown Bull.
But the Queen had little cause for triumph, for when Brown Bull and White-horned met there was a fearful combat between them. The whole land echoed with their bellowing. The earth shook beneath their feet and the sky grew dark with flying sods of earth and with flecks of foam. After long fighting Brown Bull conquered, and goring White-horned to death, ran off with him impaled upon his horns, shaking his shattered body to pieces as he ran.
But Brown Bull, too, was wounded to death. Mad with pain and wounds, he turned to his own land, and there
"He lay down
Against the hill, and his great heart broke there,
And sent a stream of blood down all the slope;
And thus, when all the war and Tain had ended,
In his own land, 'midst his own hills, he died."*
*The Tain, by Mary A. Hutton.
The Cattle Raid of Cooley is a strange wild tale, yet from it we can learn a great deal about the life of these old, far-away times. We can learn from it something of what the people did and thought, and how they lived, and even of what they wore. Here is a description of a driver and his war chariot, translated, of course, into English prose. "It is then that the charioteer arose, and he put on his hero's dress of charioteering. This was the hero's dress of charioteering that he put on: his soft tunic of deer skin, so that it did not restrain the movement of his hands outside. He put on his black upper cloak over it outside.
. . . The charioteer took first then his helm, ridged like a board, four-cornered. . . . This was well measured to him, and it was not an over weight. His hand brought the circlet of red- yellow, as though it were a plate of red gold, of refined gold smelted over the edge of the anvil, to his brow as a sign of his charioteering, as a distinction to his master.
"He took the goads to his horses, and his whip inlaid in his right hand. He took the reins to hold back his horses in his left hand. Then he put the iron inlaid breast-plate on his horses, so that they were covered from forehead to fore-foot with spears, and points, and lances, and hard points, so that every motion in this chariot was war-near, so that every corner, and every point, and every end, and every front of this chariot was a way of tearing."*
*The Cattle Raid of Cualnge, by L. W. Faraday.
We can almost see that wild charioteer and his horses, sheathed in bristling armor with "every front a way of tearing," as they dash amid the foe. And all through we come on lines like these full of color and detail, which tell us of the life of those folk of long ago.