OUR GREEK HERITAGE

The Democratic Experiment

By Professor Paul Cartledge - Professor Paul Cartledge is Professor of Greek History, University of Cambridge and was chief historical consultant for the BBC TV series 'The Greeks'.

 

The ancient Greeks famously invented democracy. But what was Greek democracy actually like - and how was it different from the 21st-century kind?

 

What's in a word?

We may live in a very different and much more complex world, but without the ancient Greeks we wouldn't even have the words to talk about many of the things we care most about. Take politics for example: apart from the word itself (from polis, meaning city-state or community) many of the other basic political terms in our everyday vocabulary are borrowed from the ancient Greeks: monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, oligarchy and - of course - democracy.

 

The ancient Greek word demokratia was ambiguous. It meant literally 'people-power'. But who were the people to whom the power belonged? Was it all the people - all duly qualified citizens? Or only some of the people - the 'masses'? The Greek word demos could mean either. There's a theory that the word demokratia was coined by democracy's enemies, members of the rich and aristocratic elite who did not like being outvoted by the common herd, their social and economic inferiors. If this theory is right, democracy must originally have meant something like 'mob rule' or 'dictatorship of the proletariat'.

 

'Greece was a collection of some 1500 separate communities scattered round the Mediterranean and Black Sea shores 'like frogs around a pond.'

Greek political systems

By the time of Aristotle (fourth century BCE) there were hundreds of Greek democracies. Greece in those times was not a single political entity but rather a collection of some 1500 separate poleis or 'cities' scattered round the Mediterranean and Black Sea shores 'like frogs around a pond', as Plato once charmingly put it. Those cities that were not democracies were either oligarchies - where power was in the hands of the few richest citizens - or monarchies, called 'tyrannies' in cases where the sole ruler had usurped power by force rather than inheritance. Of the democracies, the oldest, the most stable, the most long-lived, but also the most radical, was Athens.

 

Solon and Cleisthenes

 

A representation of Cleisthenes The origin of the Athenian democracy of the fifth and fourth centuries can be traced back to Solon, who flourished in the years around 600 BCE. Solon was a poet and a wise statesman but not - contrary to later myth - a democrat. He did not believe in people-power as such. But it was Solon's constitutional reform package that laid the basis on which democracy could be pioneered almost a hundred years later by a progressive aristocrat called Cleisthenes.

 

Cleisthenes was the son of an Athenian, but the grandson and namesake of a foreign Greek tyrant, the ruler of Sicyon in the Peloponnese. For a time he was also the brother-in-law of the Athenian tyrant, Peisistratus, who seized power three times before finally establishing a stable and apparently benevolent dictatorship. It was against the increasingly harsh rule of Peisistratus's eldest son that Cleisthenes championed a radical political reform movement which in 508/7 ushered in the Athenian democratic constitution.

 

'Ephialtes and Pericles presided over a radicalisation of power that shifted the balance decisively to the poorest sections of society.'

Ephialtes and Pericles

It was under this political system that Athens successfully resisted the Persian onslaughts of 490 and 480/79, most conspicuously at the battles of Marathon and Salamis. That victory in turn encouraged the poorest Athenians to demand a greater say in the running of their city, and in the late 460s Ephialtes and Pericles presided over a radicalisation of power that shifted the balance decisively to the poorest sections of society. This was the democratic Athens that won and lost an empire, that built the Parthenon, that gave a stage to Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes, and that laid the foundations of western rational and critical thought.

 

The democratic system was not, of course, without internal critics, and when Athens had been weakened by the catastrophic Peloponnesian War (431 - 404) these critics got their chance to translate word into deed. In 411 and again in 404 Athenian oligarchs led counter-revolutions that replaced democracy with extreme oligarchy. In 404 the oligarchs were supported by Athens's old enemy, Sparta - but even so the Athenian oligarchs found it impossible to maintain themselves in power, and after just a year democracy was restored. A general amnesty was declared (the first in recorded history) and - with some notorious 'blips' such as the trial of Socrates - the restored Athenian democracy flourished stably and effectively for another 80 years. Finally, in 322, the kingdom of Macedon which had risen under Philip and his son Alexander the Great to become the suzerain of all Aegean Greece terminated one of the most successful experiments ever in citizen self-government. Democracy continued elsewhere in the Greek world to a limited extent - until the Romans extinguished it for good.

 

Greek democracy and modern democracy

The architects of the first democracies of the modern era, post-revolutionary France and the United States, claimed a line of descent from classical Greek demokratia - 'government of the people by the people for the people', as Abraham Lincoln put it. But at this point it is crucial that we keep in mind the differences between our and the Greeks' systems of democracy - three key differences in particular: of scale, of participation and of eligibility.

 

First, scale. There were no proper population censuses in ancient Athens, but the most educated modern guess puts the total population of fifth-century Athens, including its home territory of Attica, at around 250,000 - men, women and children, free and unfree, enfranchised and disenfranchised. Of those 250,000 some 30,000 on average were fully paid-up citizens - the adult males of Athenian birth and full status. Of those 30,000 perhaps 5000 might regularly attend one or more meetings of the popular Assembly, of which there were at least 40 a year in Aristotle's day. 6000 citizens were selected to fill the annual panel of potential jurymen who would staff the popular jury courts (a typical size of jury was 501), as for the trial of Socrates.

 

'Athenian democracy was direct and in-your-face...most officials and all jurymen were selected by lot.'

An Athenian men's club

The second key difference is the level of participation. Our democracy is representative - we choose politicians to rule for us. Athenian democracy was direct and in-your-face. To make it as participatory as possible, most officials and all jurymen were selected by the lot. This was thought to be the democratic way, since election favoured the rich, famous and powerful over the ordinary citizen. From the mid fifth century, office holders, jurymen, members of the city's main administrative Council of 500, and even Assembly attenders were paid a small sum from public funds to compensate them for time spent on political service away from field or workshop.

 

The third key difference is eligibility. Only adult male citizens need apply for the privileges and duties of democratic government, and a birth criterion of double descent - from an Athenian mother as well as father - was strictly insisted upon. Women, even Athenian women, were totally excluded: this was a men's club. Foreigners - and especially unfree slave foreigners - were excluded formally and rigorously. The citizen body was a closed political elite.

 

A political space

 

Athens There are some other important differences too. Athenian democracy did not happen only in the Assembly and Council. The courts, too, were essentially political spaces, located symbolically right at the centre of the city. Aristotle in his Politics defined the democratic citizen as the man 'who has a share in (legal) judgment and office'. Also in the shadow of the Acropolis lay the theatre of Dionysus. Athenian drama, both tragic and comic, was a fundamentally political activity as well, involving the city and the citizen-body directly or indirectly in the staged dramatic action.

 

'For almost a hundred years ostracism fulfilled its function of aborting serious civil unrest or even civil war.'

Power to the people

One distinctively Athenian democratic practice that aroused the special ire of the system's critics was the practice of ostracism - from the Greek word for potsherd. In this reverse election to decide which leading politician should be exiled for ten years, voters scratched or painted the name of their preferred candidate on a piece of broken pottery. At least 6000 citizens had to 'vote' for an ostracism to be valid, and all the biggest political fish risked being fried in this ceremonious way. For almost a hundred years ostracism fulfilled its function of aborting serious civil unrest or even civil war. At the end of the fifth century it was replaced by a legal procedure administered by the jurors of the people's courts. Power to the people, all the people, especially the poor majority, remained the guiding principle of Athenian democracy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Greek History

Greece is a much harder place to live than Egypt, because the soil is not as good and there is not always enough water to grow plants for food. So people did not move there until a lot later. Our first evidence of real settlement in Greece comes from about 55,000 BC (57,000 years ago). Even then there were not very many people until around 3000 BC. Greek history is usually divided into a Stone Age, a Bronze Age, and an Iron Age. Sometimes people divide each of these periods into smaller periods as well. Stone Age people all worshiped the Great Goddess and knew that she had created the earth and all of its people.  The pottery from the earliest periods, before the gods and goddesses of Greek Myths were introduced, all reflect the Greek’s worship of the Great Goddess.

 

Greek Old Stone Age

A good deal of the Old Stone Age, or Paleolithic, time period had gone by before anyone came to live in Greece. The first definite signs of people living in Greece are from around 55,000 BC. We still know very little about them. They lived mainly from gathering wild plants and got their meat by hunting wild animals. They did not farm. They probably knew how to plant seeds, but chose not to because there was already plenty of food growing wild for the few people who lived in Greece at this time.

Franchthi Cave  Greek Middle Stone Age

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We don't know much yet about the people of Greece in the Middle Stone Age. They still lived mainly from gathering and hunting. They still did not farm or use metal or build houses. They lived in caves.

They seem to have sailed on the Mediterranean Sea in small boats made of reeds and animal skins. We think this because they used tools made of obsidian, and you can't get obsidian on the Greek mainland. The nearest place where there is obsidian is on the Aegean islands between Greece and Turkey, so either the mainland Greeks were sailing to the islands to get obsidian, or the islanders were sailing to Greece to sell it to them.

 

 

These people used stone, wood, plant fibers, and bone to make their tools, but they did not use metal. They did not build houses, but lived mainly in caves along the coastline. One example of a cave where people lived in the Old Stone Age is Franchthi Cave. The people living in Franchthi Cave hunted deer and rabbits, caught fish, and gathered wild grain for bread or porridge, wild peas and beans, and nuts.

Neolithic Greece

 

By around 7000 BC there started to be more people in Greece. This may be related to the Black Sea catastrophe which happened about this time. Maybe because of refugees from this disaster, it became harder and harder to get all the food you needed just by gathering and hunting. So people began to farm. Farming was more work (and not as much fun as picking wild berries and nuts), and the food you got wasn't as good for you and was pretty boring, but you could feed more people on less land. People also began to herd sheep and goats.

Once you are farming, you also need to build fences to keep out the deer and rabbits, and to keep in the sheep and goats, and people also began to build houses. Probably there weren't enough caves for all the new people, though people were still living in Franchthi Cave at this time too, and still sailing around in little boats.

By 5800 BC, there was a small village at a place called Nea Nikomedia. The people had small houses made of sticks and mud (wattle and daub). There was a wooden fence around the village to keep out animals (or to keep them in). People had started to use pottery (clay pots). Probably they learned how to make pots from people from West Asia, who came to live in Greece about this time.

 

Sesklo pottery

By around 5000 BC people began having stone foundations for their houses, and stone walls around their villages. Their fanciest pottery (dishes, pitchers, cups) was decorated with red and white patterns, and some of it was carried to other villages and sold there. The best dishes and cups came from a village called Sesklo.

Other villages imitated the Sesklo cups, but not as well. Probably around this time the Greek villages got big enough to choose a "big man" or "headman" to organize the village and settle arguments, and lead the men to war.

Around 4000 BC somebody destroyed the village of Sesklo. Possibly some group of people invaded Greece from the north, from Yugoslavia or Turkey, and took over some parts of Greece. These invading people seem to have had a big military advantage over the Sesklo people: they had bows and arrows, so they could shoot over the stone walls from far away.

 

These new people then settled down and built villages in Greece. One of these new villages is called Dimini. Dimini had one big house in the center, maybe for the headman of the village, and also had several stone walls around it. (These people also moved back into Nea Nikomedia.)

Greek Early Bronze Age

 

Beaked jug from Lerna

Bronze is a metal that is a mixture of a little tin and a lot of copper. It was invented in West Asia, where copper was smelted as early as 6000 BC, and during the 3000's BC experiments showed that adding tin to the copper made it harder: that is bronze. Bronze came to Greece slowly around 3000 BC and did not make much difference right away. Those same Dimini people from the Neolithic continued living in Greece, but they slowly started to use a little bronze. Bronze knives and swords were much easier to make and sharper than stone, bone or wood ones. At the same time, they started to use lead, silver, and gold as well.

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But bronze was very expensive, too. Copper wasn't so hard to get, but traders had to bring tin on donkeys from far away in central Europe (modern Austria). So only the richer or stronger people could afford bronze tools or weapons. Soon a real class system started to develop, where the richer people nearly always married each other and not the poorer people, and it was always these richer people who were in charge.

One way archaeologists can tell that there is a class of rich people whose children inherit their wealth is by finding graves with children buried in them who have gold jewelry and bronze tools and weapons with them. Can you see why this shows us that there was a rich class?

Lerna is an example of an Early Bronze Age village that has been excavated. Like Dimini, Lerna had a big house in the center, at the top of the hill, which may have been the house of the chief. This house is called the House of the Tiles, because it had clay tiles for the roof. Lerna also had many baskets which had been sealed with a special mark pressed into a lump of clay (project idea). This shows that people cared about protecting their property so it would not be stolen.

Lerna also had big stone walls, built with defensive tricks to make it hard for invaders to break in. But around 2100 BC, just as the people of Lerna were in the middle of rebuilding these walls to make them even stronger, some new people invaded Greece and burned down the whole town. Many other towns all over Greece and much of Europe were also destroyed around this time.

Middle Bronze Age Greece

 

These new invaders, who destroyed Lerna at the end of the Early Bronze Age in 2100 BC, were the Greeks (though there is still some debate about exactly when they arrived and from where). Unlike the people of Sesklo, Dimini and Lerna, these new people were Indo-Europeans who spoke an early form of the Greek language. THIS WAS WHEN THE GREEKS WENT FROM A PEACE LOVING PEOPLE WORSHIPING THE GREAT GODDESS TO A WARING PEOPLE.  Their special military weapon, which helped them to beat the Early Bronze Age people of Greece, seems to have been the horse, men fighting from chariots drawn by horses, or maybe just using horses to get from one place to another very quickly. Archaeologists digging at Lerna did not find any horse bones until after this invasion.

The Greeks also brought with them a new invention from Western Asia: the pottery wheel. The wheel made it possible to make clay pots much more quickly, and therefore more cheaply, than before.

 

For about 500 years after the Greeks invaded, not much seems to have happened in Greece. The Greeks learned the new culture and gradually mixed with the people who were already there. The Middle Bronze Age in Greece has been called "500 years without an idea." This is not quite right, though. The Greeks were getting ready for their first appearances in the Mediterranean political scene.

Late Bronze Age Greece

 

By around 1600 BC, the Greeks had gotten completely mixed with the earlier Lerna people, and began to move on to bigger things. First, they started to get to know the other people living around the Mediterranean Sea, especially the Phoenicians (foy-NEE-shans), the Cretans, and the Egyptians. They seem to have started to take jobs as soldiers for the Egyptians, who paid them in gold.

 

Mask of Agamemnon

And they started to buy things from the Phoenicians (or Canaanites) with their gold. Greek graves from this time excavated at Mycenae (my-SEEN-ay) have a lot of gold cups and jewelry and beautiful swords in them, which are now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece. The Greeks of this time are sometimes called the Myceneans (my-sin-AY-ans) after this site.

 

Lion Gate at Mycenae

As they got to know these other people, the Greeks began to copy their ways of doing things. The Greeks started to have kings instead of village headmen.

These kings had palaces to live in and collected taxes which they stored in big storerooms. The palaces had big stone walls around them. The stones were so big that later Greeks thought the walls must have been built by giants, whom they called Cyclops.

Some Greeks learned to write, in a sort of hieroglyphics called Linear B, so that they could keep records of what taxes had been collected. The kings made their people build paved roads.

In addition to maybe working as soldiers for other countries, the Greeks seem to have sailed around the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea picking fights with people on their own, and taking their gold, and probably also taking the people they met as slaves.

One of these raids, around 1250 BC, may have been to attack the city of Troy, in northern Turkey. Stories about the Trojan War (the war with Troy) were passed down for hundreds of years by singers until they were written down by the poet Homer around 700 BC.

Homer says that when the Greek soldiers came back from the Trojan War they found that Greece was in very bad shape, with a lot of robbers and crime. There may be some truth in this, because archaeology shows that around 1200 BC most of the Greek palaces were destroyed, including the one at Mycenae.

We don't know why this happened, but many people think that there was a general economic depression in the other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean and West Asia around this time, especially in Egypt and in the Hittite kingdom. A lot of people seem to have fallen on hard times. Maybe the Greeks found themselves out of work.

Dark Age Greece

 

After most of the Mycenean palaces were destroyed around 1200 BC, they were not rebuilt. The only palace we know of which was not destroyed was the one at Athens. But even Athens seems to have had a hard time for the next several hundred years. There were no more kings. Taxes were not collected. The roads were not repaired, and gradually became full of holes and could only be used for walking or riding donkeys, not for wagons. Maybe a lot of people died, because there don't seem to have been very many people living in Greece at this time. And the people who were still there were poor, and had no gold jewelry in their graves. It even seems that there were no more potters or shoemakers or other craftsmen, and people mostly had to make their own pots and other things (so the things are very badly made). Without gold, people also stopped sailing to other countries to buy things.

Because Greece was in such bad shape during the Dark Ages, and could not defend herself, it also seems that some of their neighbors to the north invaded Greece and began living in some of the Greek cities. The Greeks called these invaders the Dorians (DOOR-ee-anns), and called the old Mycenean, Bronze Age Greeks the Ionians (i-OWN-ee-anns).

A lot of the Ionians fled from the invaders, or just from the bad times in Greece, and moved to other places during the Dark Ages. Many of them moved to the coast of Turkey, and people began to call that place Ionia because of all the Ionians living there. Others moved to the coast of the Black Sea. Some historians think that some Greeks, or people like them, may have moved to Israel, where they were called the Philistines.

But some good things also happened during this time. Knowledge of how to make tools and weapons out of iron spread from the Hittites around the Mediterranean Sea, and so the Greeks also learned how to work iron. Iron is harder than bronze and cheaper to get, because you can mine it in Greece itself instead of bringing tin from far away. Because iron was cheaper than bronze, more people could use it, even poor people. And without the kings and the palaces, people were generally more equal. The rich people weren't as rich, so the differences between people weren't so big.

Archaic period

 

Archaic statue of Kleobis and Biton

By around 1000 BC the Greeks were starting to rebuild their civilization after the Dark Ages. There seem to have been more people around, and enough gold to pay for building new buildings. The Greeks did not rebuild the kings' palaces, though, because most Greek cities did not have kings anymore. Most cities were ruled by a group of rich men called aristocrats. This kind of government is called an oligarchy (OLL-ih-gark-ee). Instead, the Greeks built temples to the gods where the old palaces had been, mostly on top of hills.

There got to be so many people in Greece that the Greeks began to sent out groups of men (and sometimes women) to build new cities in other parts of Europe and Africa. One example is the city of Marseilles in the south of France. Another is a city on the Black Sea called Byzantion, which is now Istanbul, or the city of Cyrene in Libya. These are called colonies.

The Greeks (especially Corinth) also began to trade with West Asia again, especially with the Phoenicians. They learned the alphabet from the Phoenicians around 750 BC, and that is how Homer was able to write down the stories about the Trojan War. The Greeks also learned about art from Western Asia. The Greeks also began to take jobs as mercenaries (soldiers working for other people) again, in Egypt and also in Lydia (Turkey).

Around 650 BC there were two new ways of doing things which seem to have started in Greece instead of being learned from other people. We are not sure which came first, or whether one caused the other. One was a new way of fighting wars. The old way was rather disorganized: all the men on one side would just run at the men on the other side, yelling their heads off, and then they would fight until one side ran away or were all killed. In the new way, men lined up side by side, and each man used his shield to protect the man next to him, so that there was a wall of shields. Of course this only worked if everybody cooperated, and you had to practice a lot to be able to do it right, like a marching band. Also, everybody had to have a shield. But if you did it right it was much more successful than the old run-and-yell method. These new soldiers were called hoplites (HOP-lights).

The other new idea was for a new kind of government. Some of the Greek cities still had kings (Sparta for instance), but most of them were ruled by groups of aristocrats. These aristocrats were often fighting with each other over who would have the most power. Some of them tried to get other aristocrats on their side. But now one of these aristocrats had the idea to try to get the poor people on his side, too. That was pretty easy to do, because nobody had been paying any attention to these poor people at all. So this aristocrat was able to get more power than his friends and he was in charge of the city. Instead of being called the king, he was called the tyrant. The earliest tyrants (that we know of ) were in Corinth. Soon other aristocrats in other Greek cities (and in West Asia) copied this idea. (For more on tyrants click here). By 550 BC many cities were still ruled by aristocrats, especially the ones where Dorians lived, but many others were ruled by tyrants, especially the ones where Ionians lived, like Athens. Other aristocrats hated the tyrants, but a lot of poor people loved them. Most of the tyrants did a good job. They protected the poor people from the rich aristocrats, they built a lot of new buildings, and they helped people to trade with West Asia and the other nearby places.  

Classical Greece

In 510 BC a man named Cleisthenes (KLICE-then-eez), who was an aristocrat in Athens, invented another new type of government, the democracy. Cleisthenes, like other aristocrats, wanted to get more power. But tyrants had gotten unpopular in Athens. Cleisthenes decided to give even more power to poor people. He organized a new way of making political decisions. Every Athenian man would have one vote, and they would all meet and vote on what to do. The big meeting was called the Assembly.

But all the men couldn't meet every day; they had to work. So there was also a smaller council of 500 men, who were chosen by a lottery, and changed every year. Seems like Cleisthenes AND the other aristocrats would be out of power? But he arranged the voting so that his family, the Alcmaeonids (alk-MEE-oh-nids), would have more votes than anyone else.

In 490 BC the Persians attacked Athens. Everybody was very frightened, because the Persians were great fighters. Some people thought Athens should go back to the old system of government, the oligarchy, in case democracy didn't work well enough. They thought it would take too long to make decisions in a democracy. But they didn't go back.

All the men in Athens marched out to meet the Persians at Marathon. They thought they would lose. But the Athenians fought in the new way, with the wall of shields, and the Persians were still running and yelling. So the Athenians won!

In 480 BC the Persians, with their king Xerxes (ZERK-sees) attacked again. This time most of the cities in Greece banded together and formed a league to fight the Persians. They lost their first battle, at Thermopylae (therm-AH-pill-aye), but they won after that, at Salamis and again at Plataea (plah-TAY-ah). Again the Persians went home defeated. (More on the Persian Wars).

The Athenians convinced the other Greek cities that they needed to keep the strong Greek navy together in case the Persians came back again. At first everyone thought this was a good idea, except the Spartans, who refused. Then the Athenians said to the other cities, "Don't bother sending ships and men for the navy anymore; that is too hard. Just send money to Athens, and we will build ships and defend you against the Persians." So a lot of cities did that. But the Persians did not come back. After a while, some of the cities said, "We don't want to send any more money to Athens. We don't think the Persians are going to come back anymore." But the Athenians used their big navy to MAKE the other cities keep sending money. When Miletus (my-LEE-tuss) refused, the Athenians took their city and wrecked it.

The Athenians also spent some of the money on their own city. No Athenians had to pay taxes anymore. They used the money from the other cities to build great temples like the Parthenon.

The other cities in Greece were angry. They asked the Spartans to help stop the Athenians. Some cities took sides with Athens, others with Sparta. There was a big war, from 431 BC to 404 BC (almost thirty years!). This is called the Peloponnesian War. But finally, with the help of the Persians, the Spartans won and the Athenians lost. (more on the Peloponnesian War). By this time, all of Greece had pretty much been wrecked, and the Classical period was over.

SPARTA - In 441 BC, the Spartans decided that the Athenians were pushing everybody around too much, and they got an alliance of other city-states together (mainly Corinth) and attacked Athens to break up Athenian power. This is known as the Peloponnesian War, because Sparta is in the part of Greece called the Peloponnesus.

At first the Spartans were losing the war, but then when there was a plague in Athens they began to win. They won even more after they got advice from an Athenian called Alcibiades. He told them to build a navy. In the end, the Spartans won the Peloponnesian War. In 404 BC, they took over Athens and destroyed the fortification walls around Athens.

But the Spartans didn't get to enjoy their victory for very long. In 369 BC, the Theban army came down into the Peloponnese and helped the Messenians (the helots) get free of the Spartans and form their own city-state. After this, the Spartan men had to work on farms to feed themselves and their children, and they couldn't train all the time. So they weren't the best army anymore, and Sparta became just another small town, without much power.

By 338 BC, Sparta had been taken over by Philip of Macedon, - FROM WHOM OUR TERRELL LINE IS DESCENDED - like all the rest of Greece. It never really got to be independent again, but was part of Alexander the Great's empire, then part of the Roman Empire, then the Byzantine Empire, and finally, in 1453 AD, the Ottoman Empire.

 

 

 

 

                 PHILIP OF MACEDONIA

                 M. OLYMPIAS & PHILINNA

         _________________|_________________

         |                                  |

LAGOS (THE RABBIT)    ALEXANDER THE GREAT

M. CONCUBINE?            M. ROXANNA & STATIRA

         |

PTOLEMY SOTER 1

M. BERENICE

         |

PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS 2

M. ARSINOE

M. CONCUBINE?

         |

PTOLEMY EUERGETES 3

M. BERENICE

         |

PTOLEMY PHILOPATER 4

M. ARSINOE 3

         |

PTOLEMY EPIPHANES 5

M. CLEOPATRA 1

 

         |

PTOLEMY PHYSICON 7

M. CLEOPATRA 2

M. CLEOPATRA 3

         |

PTOLEMY LATHYRUS 8

M. CLEOPATRA 4

         |

PTOLEMY AULETES 11

M. EUPATRA, DAUGHTER OF MITHERIDATES

         _________________|_________________

         |                                  |

ARSINOE                             CLEOPATRA 7 (THE CLEOPATRA)

M. MENNEUS                          M. JULIUS CAESAR

         |                          N. MARK ANTONY

PTOLEMY BAR MENNEUS

M. CONCUBINE?

M. ALEXANDRIA REGENT

         |

MARIAMNE 1

M. KING HEROD (THE GREAT)

         |

ARISTOBULUS

M. BERENICE

         |

MARIAMNE (ARRIA THE ELDER)

M. T. FLAVIUS SABINUS 2

         |

MARIAMNE (CAECINA ARRIA THE YOUNGER)

M. SILLIUS DOMITIUS

M. GAIUS CALPERNIUS PISO

M. LUCIUS CALPERNIUS PISO

CONTINUED

 

MARIAMNE (CAECINA ARRIA THE YOUNGER)

M. GAIUS CALPERNIUS (CAESONINUS) PISO

         |

ARRIUS (ANTONINUS) CALPERNIUS PISO (JOSEPHUS)

M. BOIONIA PROCILLA SERVILIA

         |

POMPEIA PLOTINA DOMITIA LUCILLA 1

M. CORELIUS RUFUS

M. TRAJAN (THE EMPEROR)

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DOMITIA LUCILLA 2

M. JULIANUS CALPERNIUS PISO

         |

MARCUS AURELIUS (THE EMPEROR)

M. FAUSTINA 2

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CRISPUS COMMODUS

M. BRUTTIA CRISPINA

         |

CLAUDIA CRISPINA

M. EUTROPIUS

         |

CLOVIS CONSTANTIUS 1 (CLORUS)

M. THEODORA

M. ST. HELENA

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EMPORER CONSTANTINE 1 (THE GREAT)     CONSTANTINA

M. LICINIUS

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LICINIANUS

M. CONCUBINE?

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VALENTINIAN 1

M. JUSTINA

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VALENTINA JUSTINA

M. THEODOSIUS MAGNUS 1

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'ARCHADIUS' CLAUDIUS CLAUDIANUS

M. EUDOXIA

M. SIEGSE

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MEROVECH MEROVEE (THE YOUNG)

M. CONCUBINE?

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CHIDERICH CLAUDIOS 1

M. ANDOVERA

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CLOVIS 1

M. EVOCHILDE

M. CLOTHILDE

 

CLOVIS 1 (d. 511 C.E.)

M. EVOCHILDE

M. CLOTHILDA

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CHLOTHAR 1

M. RADEGUNDA

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CHILPERIC 1

M. GALSWITHA

M. FREDEGONDE

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CHLOTHAR 2

M. ( 3 WIVES )

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DAGOBERT 1

M. ( 5 WIVES )

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SIGISBERT 3

M. IMMACHILDE

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DAGOBERT 2

M. MATHILDE

M. GISELLE DE RAZES

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SIGISBERT 4

M. MAGDALA

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SIGISBERT 5

M. CONCUBINE?

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BERA 3

M. OLBA

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GUILLAUME

M. ( 2 WIVES )

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BERA 4

M. ROMILLE

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ARGILA

M. REVERGE

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BERA 5

M. CONCUBINE?

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HILDERIC 1

M. CONCUBINE?

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SIGISBERT 6 ('PRINCE URSUS')

M. ROTILDE

 

SIGISBERT 6 ('PRINCE URSUS')

M. ROTILDE

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GUILLAUME 2

M. IDOINE

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GUILLAUME 3

M. CONCUBINE?

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ARNAUD

M. CONCUBINE?

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BERA 6

M. CONCUBINE?

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SIGISBERT 7

M. CONCUBINE?

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HUGUES 1

M. ANNA

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JEAN (JOHN) 1

M. ISABEL

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HUGUES

M. AGNES

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EUSTACHE 1

M. MAHAUDE DE LOUVAIN

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EUSTACHE 2

M. IDE DE ARDENNES

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BALDWIN 2

M. CONCUBINE?

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MELISENDE

M. FULK 5 OF ANJOU

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GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET (THE FAIR) OF ANJOU

M. MATILDA

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HENRY 2 (KING OF ENGLAND)

M. ALIX DE PORHOET

M. ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE

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JOHN (c. 1199-1216) *

M. ISABELLA OF ANGOULEME

 

JOHN ( KING OF ENGLAND, c. 1199-1216 ) *

M. ISABELLA OF ANGOULEME

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HENRY 3 OF ENGLAND

M. ELEANOR OF PROVENCE

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EDWARD 1 (KING)M. ELEANOR OF CASTILE

M. MARGARET OF FRANCE

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Descendants of Joan of Acre

1   Joan of Acre 1272 - 1307

... +Ralph de Monthermere

2   Mary de Monthermere

2   Thomas de Monthermere

2   Joan de Monthermere

2   Edward de Monthermere

*2nd Husband of Joan of Acre:

... +Gilbert De Clare 1243 -

2   Eleanor de Clare 1292 - 1337

...+Hugh le Despencer - "The Younger - 1326

3   Isabel Despencer

+Richard Fitzalan-10th Earl of Arundel 1313 - 1375

. 4   [1] Phillippa Fitzalan 1349 -

....... +[2] Richard Serjeaux

.. 5   [3] Elizabeth Serjeaux

........ +[4] William Marney

... 6   [5] John Marney

......... +[6] Alice Throckmorton

.... 7   [7] Anna Marney 1410 -

.......... +[8] Thomas Tyrrell

..... 8   [9] Thomas Tyrrell II (Sir) 1430 - 1490

...........+[10] Elizabeth Le Brun 1430 - 1473

....... 9   [11] William Tyrrell (Sir) 1465 -

............. +[12] Elizabeth Bodley

........ 10   [13] Humphry Tyrrell 1490 - 1547/48

.............. +[14] Jane Ingleton 1498 -

......... 11   [15] George Tyrrell 1530 - 1571

............... +[16] Eleanor Elizabeth Montague 1530 -...............12   [17] William Tyrrell 1552 - 1595

................ +[18] Margaret Richmond 1555 -..............13   [19] Robert Tyrrell 1600 - 1643

................. +[20] Jane Baldwin 1590 - 1661

............ 14   [21] Richmond Terrell 1624 - 1677

.................. +[22] Elizabeth Waters

............. 15   [23] Timothy Tyrrell 1665 -

................... +[24] Elizabeth Foster 1665 -

............... 16   [25] Joseph Terrell 1699 - 1775

..................... +[26] Mary

........17   [27] Joseph Terrell, Jr. 1744/45 - 1787

..................+[28] Elizabeth Mills 1744/45 - 1833

................. 18   [29] David Terrell 1782 - 1819

.................+[30] Mary Henley Thompson - 1871

.. 19   [31] Joseph Carr Terrell 1807 - 1864

......................+[32] Ann Terrell 1790 -

....20  [33] Charles Thomas Terrell 1852 - 1923

........+[34] Frances Pierce McGeHee 1852 - 1929

.....21 [35] Early Thomas Terrell 1882 - 1967

........+[36] Ophelia Louise Harris 1884 - 1968

......22[37] James Emmett Terrell 1911 - 1967

........+[38] Nannie Belle Clendenin 1910 - 1972

......23 [39] Nancy Terrell 1940 -

........+[40] M.F. "Bud" Longnecker (Dr.) 1936 -

.......24[41] Michael Emmett Longnecker 1964 -

.........+[42] Tina Wendy Hilty 1961 -

........25{43] Taylor Hilty Longnecker 1989 -

........24[44] Gregory Stuart Longnecker 1966 -

..........+[45] Helen Hernandez 1965 -

........25[46] Lauren Longnecker 1988 -

.......2nd Wife of [44] Gregory Stuart Longnecker:

...........+[47] Stacy Marie Weinkel 1977 -

.........25   [48] Christian Terrell Longnecker 1997

         25   [49] Hannah Marie Longnecker 1998 -

......3rd wife of {44} Gregory Stuart Longnecker

............+[50] Mamie

...............[51] Luke Longnecker 2005

...............[52] Liana Elizabeth Longnecker 2007

 

GREEK MYTHS

 

The religious beliefs of Classical Greece can be interpreted in many different ways. Nobody can be sure how or why people believe a certain story about their gods. And different people probably have different reasons for believing a story. Or the same person may believe a story for several different reasons. Not everyone believes all the stories, either: different people may tell different stories. And people may tell one story in one situation, and a different story in a different situation, whatever seems to fit. Here are some of the stories that people told in Ancient Greece, and some of the reasons why they might have told these stories and not other ones.

To help you relate one story to another, here are some of the ways that the Greeks thought their gods were related.  Remember that Myths are made to give examples as to how to live and what not to do - much like the Christian Bible, the Jewish Old Testament and the Muslim Koran.

(in family trees, = means they have children together.

And here are some of the myths - stories about the gods and heroes - that Greek people told:

Pandora

Theseus and the Minotaur

Medusa

Perseus

Arachne

Actaeon

Oedipus

Antigone

Judgment of Paris

Phaethon

Daedalus and Icarus

Niobe

Iphigeneia

Helen of Troy

Europa

Achilles

Menelaus

The Trojan Horse

Agamemnon

Phaedra

Atreus and Thyestes

Tantalus

Pelops

Ajax

Herakles (Hercules)

The Sphinx

Cassandra

The Odyssey

Trojan War (the Iliad)

Jason and Medea

 

PANDORA'S BOX - OR THE MYTH OF HOW PROBLEMS CAME INTO THE WORLD

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When Zeus was so angry at Prometheus for giving people fire, he was also mad at the people who had tricked him into taking the wrong bag of meat. Zeus got back at the people by making a beautiful woman, whom he named Pandora (which means all-gifts).

Zeus sent Pandora down to earth and gave her as a present to Prometheus' brother, Epimetheus. Zeus told Epimetheus that he should marry Pandora. Also, Zeus sent Pandora with a little box, with a big lock on it (Actually in ancient Greek versions of this story it is a sealed pottery vase). He said not to ever open the box, and he gave the key to Epimetheus.

But Pandora was very curious about what was in the box. She begged Epimetheus to let her open it, but he always said no. Finally one day he fell asleep, and she stole the key (or broke the seal) and opened the box (or vase).

Oh! Out of the box flew every kind of trouble that people had never known about before: sicknesses, and worries, and crimes, and hate and envy and all sorts of bad things. The bad things all began to fly away like little bugs, all over the place. Pandora was very sorry now that she had opened the box! She tried to catch the bad things and put them back in the box but it was too late. They all flew away.

But the very last thing to fly out of the box, as Pandora sat there crying, was not as ugly as the others. In fact it was beautiful. It was Hope, which Zeus sent to keep people going when all the nasty things got them down.

 

ARACHINE - THE WEAVER WHO WAS TURNED INTO A SPIDER

 

Arachne was a girl who lived in Greece a long long time ago (in the story; this is a story). She was a very good weaver and spinner. She wove all sorts of beautiful pictures into her cloth, and people came from all around to see her beautiful cloth. But Arachne was arrogant (proud; she had what the Greeks called hubris).

Arachne began telling people she was better at spinning and weaving than the goddess Athena was. Athena was also known as a good spinner and weaver.

Athena was mad that Arachne would say that, and she challenged Arachne to a weaving contest. The two of them set up their looms in the same room and they wove from early in the morning until it got too dark to see (remember there were no electric lights then!). Then they compared what they had done.

 

Athena had woven a beautiful cloth showing the gods and goddesses sitting together on Mt. Olympus and doing good deeds for people. But Arachne thought she was so smart, she wove a cloth making fun of the gods and goddesses, showing them getting drunk and falling down and making a mess of things. Still it was clearly better weaving than Athena had done. When Athena saw it she was even more angry than she had been before. Even though Arachne's weaving was better, Athena didn't care. She pointed her finger at Arachne and suddenly Arachne's nose and ears shrank up, her hair all fell out, her arms and legs got long and skinny, and her whole body shrank until she was just a little tiny spider (Arachne means spider in Greek). "You want to spin," cried Athena, go ahead and spin!"

Judgment of Paris

Around 1250 BC, toward the end of the Bronze Age in Greece, three goddesses were having an argument (said the Greeks). The goddesses Aphrodite, Athena, and Hera were arguing about which one of them was the most beautiful. They agreed to choose a human man and let him decide. More or less at random, the goddesses picked Paris, the youngest son of King Priam of Troy, to be their judge.

 

JUDGEMENT OF PARIS - THE NASTY YOUNG LAD WHO STOLE SOMEONE ELSE'S WIFE - HELEN OF TROY

 

Each of the goddesses offered Paris a bribe to get him to vote for her. Athena offered him wisdom. Hera offered him power. But Aphrodite offered him the most beautiful woman in the world, and Paris voted for her.

So Aphrodite had to come through on her promise. She sent Paris to go visit the Greek king of Sparta, Menelaus (men-uh-LAY-us). Menelaus was married to Helen, who was the most beautiful woman in the world. Menelaus and Helen welcomed Paris kindly, and gave him dinner and let him stay the night in their house. But during the night Paris convinced Helen to run away with him (because Aphrodite made her agree). He took her back to Troy with him and married her, even though she was already married to Menelaus.

 

THE LLIAD - ONE OF THE MOST CLASSIC STORIES EVER WRITTEN

 

"Sing, Goddess, of the anger of Achilles..."

The story of Homer's Iliad begins in the middle of the Trojan War, just at the end of the Bronze Age in Greece. (To find out about the beginning of the war, click here). We don't know if there ever really was a Trojan War, but even if there was, this is a story about it, not a real memory of it.

The Greeks believed that the Trojan War lasted for ten years, and this story happens in the tenth year of the war, when both sides were really sick of being at war, and the Greeks were sick of being away from home.

The Iliad begins with a fight between the leader of the Greeks, King Agamemnon of Mycenae, and the Greeks' best fighter, King Achilles (uh-KILL-eez). (The Greeks lived in a lot of little city-states, and in the Bronze Age each one had its own king, but Agamemnon was leading them all during the war). The Greeks had won a battle and were splitting up the booty.  Everybody had a pile of stuff. Achilles had gotten a woman among his stuff, to be his slave, whose name was Briseis (brih-SAY-iss). But Agamemnon decided that HE wanted the pretty Briseis, and he just took her from Achilles, saying that he was the head of the army so he would do what he liked.

Well, Achilles was so angry that Agamemnon took Briseis from him that he refused to fight for the Greeks anymore and just sat in his tent and sulked. Without their best fighter, the Greeks started losing battles.

 

Achilles bandaging the wounded Patroclos

Athens, red-figure vase, 500 BC (now in Berlin)

Finally Achilles' best friend Patroclos thought of an idea. He put on Achilles' famous armor and went out to fight. Both the Greeks and the Trojans thought Achilles had come back to the battle and the Greeks won a big victory, but Patroclos was killed in the fighting: he might dress like Achilles but he could not fight like him.

When Achilles heard that Patroclos was dead, he was ashamed of how he had been sulking. He agreed to fight again. Now the Greeks really started to win. So the best Trojan fighter, Prince Hector, came out from Troy to fight Achilles. They fought for a long time, but finally Achilles killed Hector.

Hector's father, King Priam, came to Achilles at night to ask for his son's body back, and Achilles gave it to him.

The Iliad ends here, but this is not the end of the story.

THE TROJAN HORSE - OR HOW TO SNEAK YOUR MEN INTO SOMEONE ELSE'S TERRITORY

 

After the events of the Iliad and the death of Hector, the Trojan War still wasn't over. Neither the Greeks nor the Trojans seemed to be able to win, until one of the Greek kings, Odysseus of Ithaca, had an idea.

"Build a big wooden horse on wheels," he said, "big enough for a bunch of Greek soldiers to hide inside it." So the Greeks did. Then the Greeks all pretended to sail home (except the ones hiding inside the horse!). They acted like they had given up and left. But really they hid just around the corner.

Soon the Trojans found the horse. "What is it?" they asked each other. Nobody knew. (The Greek soldiers hiding inside kept very quiet). Then they found a Greek soldier hiding nearby. He said (though this was part of the trick) that the other Greeks hated him and they had left him behind. So the Trojans asked him what the horse was for. He said it was an offering to Athena.

Well, the Trojans didn't want to upset Athena either, so they rolled the big horse into the city of Troy. It was so big it wouldn't go through the gate, and they had to tear down a piece of the city wall to get it in. They left it at the temple of Athena, and then the Trojans had a big party to celebrate the end of the war. (Still the Greek soldiers inside the horse kept very quiet).

Finally everyone fell asleep, and NOW the Greek soldiers came out of the Trojan Horse and killed the guards on the walls. They signaled to the other Greeks to come attack Troy. They could get in now because the walls were torn down. There was a big battle and the Greeks won. All the Trojan men were killed, and all the women and children were taken back to Greece as slaves.

This story does not actually appear in the Iliad or the Odyssey, but it is told in Virgil's Aeneid and in other ancient sources.

 

HELEN OF TROY - THE MOST BEAUTIFUL WOMAN IN GREECE

 

Helen, the daughter of Zeus and the queen of Sparta, was the most beautiful young woman in the world. She lived in Sparta with her mother and her father, the king of Sparta, and her half-sister, Clytemnestra. All the young men wanted to marry her. Her stepfather (the king of Sparta) was afraid that if he said she could marry one of the suitors all the other suitors would fight him, and there would be a big war. (Yes, Helen was that beautiful. It's a story).

So Helen's stepfather had an idea. He got all the suitors together in one place and made them all swear to protect Helen and her marriage, whichever one of them got to marry her. So they all swore. Then the king (Helen's stepfather) had the suitors all compete in athletic games. The one who won was Menelaus, and so he married Helen.

Helen's sister Clytemnestra married Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, Menelaus' older brother.

Menelaus

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Menelaus was the son of Atreus, the brother of Agamemnon. He was married to Helen when Paris took Helen away to Troy.

After the Trojan War, Menelaus got Helen back and he sailed home with her. They didn't have any trouble getting home. They went right back to living in their house in Sparta and apparently got along fine. They appear in Homer's Odyssey.

 

AGAMEMNON - HOW NOT TO ACT WHEN YOU RETURN HOME FROM A WAR

________________________________________

This is the first of a cycle of three plays written by the Greek playwright Aeschylus. When the play begins, King Agamemnon is still away at the Trojan War. His wife Clytemnestra (kly-tem-NEST-ra) and his young children, Orestes (a boy) and Electra (a girl) are at home in Mycenae. But Clytemnestra is very angry at Agamemnon for killing their daughter Iphigeneia, and she has been letting a cousin of Agamemnon's named Aegisthus rule the kingdom while he was away, instead of keeping it safe for her husband.

 

(from left to right, Clytemnestra, Aegisthus, Agamemnon, Electra, and Cassandra)

When Agamemnon gets home, he acts very arrogant. He does not pay the gods the respect that they deserve. For instance, he walks on a red carpet to the door of his house, even though this should be sacred to the gods. This is hubris, and the gods punish it. As soon as Agamemnon gets inside the house, Clytemnestra and Aegisthus murder him (off-stage; in Greek plays the action usually takes place off-stage).

Cassandra, a Trojan priestess whom Agamemnon has brought home as his slave, is also murdered.

Libation Bearers

 

ORESTES - REMEMBER THIS IS MYTH AND ALSO THE BASIS FOR MODERN PSYCHOLOGY OF THE MALE

 

This is the second of a cycle of three plays written by the Greek playwright Aeschylus. Some time has passed since the action of Agamemnon. Agamemnon's children, Orestes and Electra, have grown up with their mother Clytemnestra and their stepfather Aegisthus. But they are very unhappy, because they know their mother murdered their father. Orestes has gone away, fearing that his mother might murder him too. But he comes back when he is grown up, and struggles with the decision: Which is worse - to let his father's murder go unpunished, or to kill his own mother?

In the end, after a long discussion with his sister Electra, he decides that he has to avenge his father's murder, even though it means killing his mother. So Orestes kills Clytemnestra and Aegisthus.

Eumenides

 

(Eumenides Painter, about 380 BC)

This is the third of a cycle of three plays written by the Greek playwright Aeschylus. When Orestes kills his mother, Clytemnestra, the Furies (the Eumenides: you-MEN-ih-dees) attack him because he has done such a terrible thing. You might say he begins to go crazy with the horror of what he has done. But the goddess Athena steps in and says that the Furies will not decide this case. Instead, it will be tried in a court of law, and the men of Athens will be the jury.

The court meets, and each side presents their arguments: was it better to let his father go unavenged, or to kill his mother? The god Apollo speaks to defend Orestes, and the Furies speak against him.

The jury deadlocks, half on each side, but Athena casts the deciding vote that lets Orestes go free.

 

 

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