Baldwin I

King of Jerusalem (1100-1118)


The coronation of Baldwin I on Christmas Day 1100

[from: William of Tyre: Histoire d'Outremer, French, 13th century, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, MS Fr. 9081, f.99v]

Count of Boulogne, and youngest brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, he joined the First Crusade in 1096. Founded the County of Edessa - the first crusader state - in 1098. On the death of Godfrey (1100) he was elected king of Jerusalem. He repelled Egyptian attacks, enforced the authority of state over church and extended the boundaries of the kingdom.

[from: Hallam, Elizabeth (edt.): Chronicles of the crusades. London 1989]


Seal of Baldwin, Crusader King of Jerusalem (at top on left)

Baldwin, King of Jerusalem

Latin kings of Jerusalem. Baldwin I, 1058?-1118 (r.1100-18), was a brother of GODFREY OF BOUILLON, whom he accompanied in the First CRUSADE. He gained the chief ports of Palestine and aided other Latin rulers against the Muslims. His cousin and successor, Baldwin II, d. 1131 (r.1118-31), was also in the First Crusade. As king he warred with the Turks in N Syria. During his reign TYRE and Antioch became Jerusalem's dependents. Baldwin III, 1130-62 (r.1143-62), the son of Fulk of Anjou, ruled as Latin power in the East began to decay. Edessa fell (1144) to the Muslims, the Second Crusade failed, and the Turkish sultan Nur ad-Din took (1154) N Syria. His nephew Baldwin IV (the Leper), c.1161-85 (r.1174-85), defended his kingdom constantly against SALADIN. When his leprosy became worse, he had his child-nephew crowned (1183) Baldwin V (d. 1186).


Baldwin I, Latin king of Jerusalem

(Baldwin of Boulogne), 1058?–1118, Latin king of Jerusalem (1100–1118), brother and successor of Godfrey of Bouillon, whom he accompanied on the First Crusade (see Crusades). Separating from the main army after the successful siege of Nicaea, Baldwin followed Tancred into Cilicia and seized (1097) Tarsus from him. He wrested (1097) Edessa from the Muslims and as count of Edessa defended the city until elected ruler of Jerusalem. His election marked the triumph of the military faction of the Crusaders over the ecclesiastical faction. Taking the title of king, he consolidated the Latin states of the East. With the help of crusading fleets from the West and, more important, the Genoese and the Venetians, to whom he made large concessions, he gained possession of the chief ports of Palestine. He helped the Latin rulers of Antioch, Edessa, and Tripoli against the Muslims and fought against the Egyptians. He died on his return from an expedition into Egypt. His cousin, Baldwin II, succeeded him.

[from: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2000 Columbia


                       Coin of King Baldwin V                                Flemish Art



Belgium Royal History

The Kingdom of Belgium is a democracy with a constitutional monarch. The current king, Albert II, does not govern. In fact, according to the constitution, the king can't take any official action without the approval of a minister, and his ministers are held accountable for his actions! In Belgium the king is traditionally considered a moral leader.

Belgium has a well-educated public and a very high quality of life. There is almost no illiteracy, and all citizens over the age of 18 are required to vote. The leaders of the four major religions -- Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and Islam -- are paid by the state. About three-quarters of the people are Catholic.

The country encompasses 11,784 square miles and is about the size of the American state of Maryland, but its coastline stretches only forty miles. It is bordered by the North Sea, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, and France. Belgium has a moderate climate, and is rarely very hot or cold.

There are about 10 million people in Belgium. In the north part of the country, Flanders, Dutch or Flemish is spoken. In the south, Wallonia, the predominant language is French. The capital, Brussels, is in the Flemish part of the country but is predominantly French-speaking. About 10 percent of the population speaks German. Most Belgians speak English, too. There are many immigrants from North Africa and the Mediterranean in Brussels.

If Belgium sounds like a melting pot for different culture, it's no wonder. In its history, it has been ruled by Austria, France, Germany, Spain and others. Figures as diverse as Julius Caesar, Charlemagne, and Napoleon have played some part in Belgium's complex history.

From the Celts to the Crusades

The name Belgium comes from a Celtic tribe, the Belgae, who settled ancient Gaul around 900 BC. In 52 BC, Julius Caesar conquered the Belgae's territory, Belgica, putting Belgium under Roman rule.

As the Roman Empire went into decline, a group of Germanic tribes called the Franks began settling in what is now Belgium. In time most of the Roman region of Gaul, including Belgium, became part of the Frankish empire. The Frankish king Charlemagne is sometimes regarded as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire, which lasted from 800 to 1806 and included Belgium. Sometimes the Holy Roman Emperor had no real authority; sometimes he had a lot.

The Frankish empire was divided up after Charlemagne's death. His grandson Lothair's portion of the empire included most of Belgium. The remainder became part of France. Eventually much of Belgium split into self-ruling feudal principalities.

Belgium's Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Lower Lorraine, was one of the leaders of the First Crusade. In 1099 he became the ruler of Jerusalem, although he refused the title of king, saying that Jesus was the only king. He was a shrewd enough politician to know that turning down the title would impress his subjects and increase his power. After his death, however, his brother became King Baldwin I. Descendents of this royal Belgian family continued to rule Jerusalem for years.

The Crusades opened up European trade with the East, and Belgian merchants became wealthy. They joined artisans in communes, or free cities, and gained political rights. In 1066 the citizens of Liege, in Belgium, were granted one of the world's first charters of civil liberties.

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Descendants of Baldwin V – Count of Flanders


1   Godefroi de Bouillon 1062 – 1100 (no heirs)

2   Baldwin Flanders – KING BALDWIN I (G0defroi’s brother from whom we are descended)

+Ogive De Luxembourg

3   Baldwin V - Count of Flanders 1012 - 1067

+Adele - Princess of France

4   Erembourge of Mans 1093 - 1126

+Fulk V d'Anjou - King of Jerusalem 1092 - 1143

5  Geoffrey Plantagenet - Duke of Normandy 1113 - 1151

+Matilda - Princess of England 1102 - 1167

6   Henry II - King of England 1112/13 - 1189

+ Eleanor of Aquitaine 1122 - 1204

7  John "Lackland" Plantagenet - King of England 1167 - 1216

     +Isabella d'Angouleme 1188 - 1246

8   Henry III - King of England 1207 - 127

     + Eleanor Bergener 1217 - 1291

9   Edward I "Longshanks"- King of England 1239 - 1307

     +Eleanor of Castile 1240 - 1290

10  Joan of Acre - Princess of England Plantagenet                1272 - 1307

+Gilbert de Clare - The Red - Earl of Gloucester 1243 -             1295

11   Eleanor de Clare 1292 - 1337

+Hugh le Despencer - "The Younger - 1326

12   Isabel Despencer

      Richard Fitzalan-10th Earl of Arundel1313 - 1375

13   [1] Phillippa Fitzalan 1349 -

+[2] Richard Serjeaux

14   [3] Elizabeth Serjeaux

+[4] William Marney

15   [5] John Marney

    +[6] Alice Throckmorton

16   [7] Anna Marney 1410 -

  +[8] Thomas Tyrrell

17   [9] Thomas Tyrrell II (Sir) 1430 - 1490

+[10] Elizabeth Le Brun 1430 - 1473

18   [11] William Tyrrell (Sir) 1465 -

+[12] Elizabeth Bodley

19   [13] Humphry Tyrrell 1490 - 1547/48

20   [15] George Tyrrell 1530 - 1571

    +[16] Eleanor Elizabeth Montague 1530 -

21   [17] William Tyrrell 1552 - 1595

    +[18] Margaret Richmond 1555 -

22   [19] Robert Tyrrell 1600 - 1643

+[20] Jane Baldwin 1590 - 1661

23   [21] Richmond Terrell 1624 - 1677

+[22] Elizabeth Waters

24   [23] Timothy Tyrrell 1665 -

          +[24] Elizabeth Foster 1665 -

25   [25] Joseph Terrell 1699 - 1775

      +[26] Mary

26   [27] Joseph Terrell, Jr. 1744/45 - 1787

    +[28] Elizabeth Mills 1744/45 - 1833

27   [29] David Terrell 1782 - 1819

    +[30] Mary Henley Thompson - 1871

28   [31] Joseph Carr Terrell 1807 - 1864

           +[32] Ann Terrell 1790 -

29   [33] Charles Thomas Terrell 1852 - 1923

      +[34] Frances Pierce McGeHee 1852 - 1929

30   [35] Early Thomas Terrell 1882 - 1967

        +[36] Ophelia Louise Harris 1884 - 1968

31   [37] James Emmett Terrell 1911 - 1967

          +[38] Nannie Belle Clendenin 1910 - 1972

32   [39] Nancy Terrell 1940 -

+[40] M.F. "Bud" Longnecker (Dr.) 1936 -

33   [41] Michael Emmett Longnecker 1964 -

+[42] Tina Wendy Hilty 1961 -

34   [43] Taylor Hilty Longnecker 1989 -

33   [44] Gregory Stuart Longnecker 1966 -

34   [46] Lauren Longnecker 1988 -

34   [48] Christian Terrell Longnecker 1997 -

34   [49] Hannah Marie Longnecker 1998 -

34.      {50] Luke Longnecker - 2005 -

32   [50] James Emmett Terrell, Jr. 1944 -



Matilda of Flanders

Queen consort of the English; Duchess of Normandy (more...)

Consort 25 December 1066 – 2 November 1083

Consort to William I the Conqueror


Robert III Curthose

William II Rufus

Adela, Countess of Blois

Henry I Beauclerc

among others...

Royal house House of Normandy

Father Baldwin V, Count of Flanders

Mother Adela Capet

Born c. 1031


Died 2 November 1083 (aged c. 51)


Burial St. Stephen's, Caen, Normandy

Matilda of Flanders (c. 1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen consort of the Kingdom of England and the wife of William I the Conqueror. Her love for her husband is referenced in the Award-winning play, Angels in America.


She was the daughter of count Baldwin V of Flanders, and Adèle (1000-1078/9), daughter of Robert II of France.


Accustomed to speaking her mind and getting her way, the 4'2"-tall (Britain's smallest queen[citation needed]) Matilda (or "Maud") told the representative of William, Duke of Normandy (later king of England as William the Conqueror), who had come asking for her hand, that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard. When that was repeated to him, William, all of 5'10", rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse (some said by her long braids), threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off. Another version states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving. Naturally Baldwin took offense to this but before they drew swords, Matilda settled the matter. [1] Regardless of the story, she decided to marry him, and even a papal ban (on the grounds of consanguinity) did not dissuade her. They were married in 1053.


There were rumours that Matilda had been in love with the English ambassador to Flanders, a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances. Whatever the truth of the matter, years later when she was acting as Regent for William in England, she used her authority to confiscate Brihtric's lands and throw him into prison, where he died.


When William was preparing to invade England, Matilda outfitted a ship, the Mora, out of her own money and gave it to him. For many years it was thought that she had something to do with creating the Bayeux Tapestry, but historians no longer believe that; it seems to have been commissioned by William's half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and made by Saxons in Kent.


Matilda bore William eleven children, and he was believed to have been faithful to her, at least up until the time their son Robert rebelled against his father and Matilda sided with Robert against William. After she died, in 1083 at the age of 51, William became tyrannical, and people blamed it on his having lost her. Contrary to the belief that she was buried at St. Stephen's, also called l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes in Caen, Normandy, where William was eventually buried, she is intombed at l'Abbaye aux Dames, which is the Sainte-Trinité church, also in Caen. Of particular interest is the 11th century slab, a sleek black stone decorated with her epitaph, marking her grave at the rear of the church. It is of special note since the grave marker for William was replaced as recently as the beginning of the 19th century. Years later, their graves were opened and their bones measured, proving their physical statures.



[edit] Children

Some doubt exists over how many daughters there were. This list includes some entries which are obscure.


Robert Curthose (c. 1054 – 1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano

Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 – ?), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England (Her existence is in some doubt.)

Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 – 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen

William Rufus (1056 – 1100), King of the English

Richard (1057 – c. 1081), killed by a stag in New Forest

Adela (c. 1062 – 1138), married Stephen, Count of Blois

Agatha (c. 1064 – c. 1080), betrothed to (1) Harold of Wessex, (2) Alfonso VI of Castile

Constance (c. 1066 – 1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants

Matilda (very obscure, her existence is in some doubt)

Henry Beauclerc (1068–1135), King of England, married (1) Edith of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (2) Adeliza of Louvain

Gundred (c. 1063 – 1085), wife of William de Warenne (c. 1055 – 1088),  yet another of Matilda's daughters, with speculation that she was William I's full daughter, a step-daughter, or even a foundling or adopted daughter.