Netherland Antilles


Spanish, though not among the official languages, is the second most spoken language on the islands.

The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch:  Nederlandse Antillen (help·info)), previously known as the Netherlands West Indies or Dutch Antilles/West Indies, is part of the Lesser Antilles and consists of two groups of islands in the Caribbean Sea: Curaçao and Bonaire, just off the Venezuelan coast, and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten, located southeast of the Virgin Islands. The islands form an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The islands' economy depends mostly upon tourism, international financial services, international commerce and shipping and petroleum.


The Netherlands Antilles was scheduled to be dissolved as a unified political entity on December 15, 2008, so that the five constituent islands would attain new constitutional statuses within the Kingdom of the Netherlands,[6] but this dissolution has been postponed to an indefinite future date.[7] As of December 15, 2008, legislation to amend the charter of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and to define the new status of Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius was still being reviewed.[8]



Main article: History of the Netherlands Antilles

See also: Dutch colonial empire

Both the leeward (Alonso de Ojeda, 1499) and windward (Christopher Columbus, 1493) island groups were discovered and initially settled by Spain. In the 17th century, the islands were conquered by the Dutch West India Company and were used as military outposts and trade bases, most prominent the slave trade. Slavery was abolished in 1863.


In 1954, the status of the islands was up-graded from a colonial territory to a part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as a separate country within the kingdom. The island of Aruba was part of the Netherlands Antilles until 1986, when it was granted status aparte, becoming yet another part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands as a separate country within the kingdom.


Between June 2000 and April 2005, each island of the Netherlands Antilles had a referendum on its future status. The four options that could be voted on were:


closer ties with the Netherlands

remaining within the Netherlands Antilles

autonomy as a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (status aparte)


Of the five islands, Sint Maarten and Curaçao voted for status aparte, Saba and Bonaire voted for closer ties to the Netherlands, and Sint Eustatius voted to stay within the Netherlands Antilles.


On November 26, 2005 a Round Table Conference (RTC) was held between the governments of the Netherlands, Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and each island in the Netherlands Antilles. The final statement to emerge from the RTC stated that autonomy for Curaçao and Sint Maarten, plus a new status for Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius would come into effect by July 1, 2007.[9] On October 12, 2006, the Netherlands reached an agreement with Saba, Bonaire, and Sint Eustatius; this agreement would make these islands special municipalities.[10] On November 3, 2006, Curaçao and Sint Maarten were granted autonomy in an agreement,[11] but this agreement was rejected by the then island council of Curaçao on November 28.[12] The Curaçao government was not sufficiently convinced that the agreement would provide enough autonomy for Curaçao. [13] On July 9, 2007 the new island council of Curaçao approved the agreement previously rejected in November 2006.[14]




Main article: Politics of the Netherlands Antilles

The head of state is the ruling monarch of the Netherlands, who is represented in the Netherlands Antilles by a governor. A council of ministers, chaired by a prime minister, forms the local government. Together with the governor, who holds responsibility for external affairs and defense, it forms the executive branch of the government.


The legislative branch is two-layered. Delegates of the islands are represented in the government of the Netherlands Antilles, but each island has its own government that takes care of the daily affairs on the island.


The Netherlands Antilles are not part of the European Union. Since 2006 the Islands have given rise to diplomatic disputes between Venezuela and the Netherlands. Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez claims that the Netherlands might allow the United States to install military bases that would be necessary for a planned U.S. invasion of Venezuela.[15]



Future status

Main article: Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles


Map of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands and the Caribbean islands are in the same scale.The Netherlands Antilles was to be disbanded on December 15, 2008.[6] This dissolution is still planned, but has been postponed to an indefinite future date.[7] The idea of the Netherlands Antilles as a state never enjoyed the full support of all of the islands, and political relations between islands were often strained. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986, and formed its own state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The desire for secession has also been strong in Sint Maarten.


In 2004, a commission of the governments of the Netherlands Antilles and the Netherlands reported on a future status for the Netherlands Antilles. The commission advised a revision of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in order to dissolve the Netherlands Antilles.


Two new associated states within the Kingdom of the Netherlands would be formed, Curaçao and Sint Maarten. Meanwhile, Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius would become a direct part of the Netherlands as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeente), a form of "public body" (openbaar lichaam) as outlined in article 134 of the Dutch Constitution. These municipalities will resemble ordinary Dutch municipalities in most ways (they will have a mayor, aldermen and a municipal council, for example) and will have to introduce most Dutch law. Residents of these three islands will also be able to vote in Dutch national and European elections. There are, however, some derogations for these islands. Social security, for example, will not be on the same level as it is in the Netherlands, and it is not certain whether the islands will be obliged to introduce the euro[16]; they may retain the Antillean guilder pending further negotiations. All five of the island territories may also continue to access the Common Court of Justice of Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles (with the Joint Court probably receiving a new name). The three islands will also have to involve the Dutch Minister of Foreign Relations before they can make agreements with countries in the region.


Originally the term used for Bonaire, Saba, and St. Eustatius to describe their expected association with the Netherlands was "Kingdom Islands" (Koninkrijkseilanden). The Dutch province of North Holland has offered the three new municipalities the opportunity to become part of the province.


Additionally, the Kingdom government would consist of the government of the Netherlands and one mandated minister per Caribbean country. The special municipalities would be represented in the Kingdom Government by the Netherlands, as they can vote for the Dutch parliament.


The Netherlands has proposed that the proposed Treaty of Lisbon allow the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba to opt for the status of Outermost Region (OMR) also called Ultra Peripheral Region (UPR), if they wish.[17]




Main article: Islands of the Netherlands Antilles


Map showing French Saint-Martin (north) and Dutch Sint Maarten (south).The Netherland Antilles have no major administrative divisions, although each island has its own local government.


The two island groups of which the Netherlands Antilles consists are:


the "Leeward Islands" (Benedenwindse Eilanden), part of the Leeward Antilles island chain off the Venezuelan coast (along with Aruba) (ABC islands).

Bonaire, including an islet called Klein Bonaire ("Little Bonaire")

Curaçao, including an islet called Klein Curaçao ("Little Curaçao")

the "Windward Islands" (Bovenwindse Eilanden) east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (SSS islands). These are part of what are in English called the Leeward Islands, but in e.g. French, Spanish, Dutch and the English spoken locally these are considered part of the Windward Islands.


Sint Eustatius

Sint Maarten, the southern half of the island Saint Martin (the northern half, Saint-Martin, is an overseas collectivity of France).



Main article: Geography of the Netherlands Antilles


The flat landscape of Klein Bonaire.

Map of the Netherlands AntillesThe windward islands are all of volcanic origin and hilly, leaving little ground suitable for agriculture. The leeward islands have a mixed volcanic and coral origin. The highest point is Mount Scenery, 862 metres (2,828 ft), on Saba (also the highest point in all the Kingdom of the Netherlands).


The Netherlands Antilles have a tropical climate, with warm weather all year round. The windward Islands are subject to hurricanes in the summer months.




Main article: Economy of the Netherlands Antilles

See also: Economy of Saba

Tourism, petroleum transshipment and oil refinement (on Curaçao), as well as offshore finance are the mainstays of this small economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. The islands enjoy a high per capita income and a well-developed infrastructure as compared with other countries in the region. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico being the major suppliers, as well as the Dutch government which supports the islands with substantial development aid. Poor soils and inadequate water supplies hamper the development of agriculture. The Antillean guilder has a fixed exchange rate with the United States dollar of 1.79:1.




Main article: Demographics of the Netherlands Antilles

A large part of the Netherlands Antilleans descends from European colonists and African slaves that were brought and traded here from the 17th to 19th century. The rest of the population originates from other Caribbean islands, Latin America, East Asia and elsewhere in the world.


Papiamentu is predominant on Curaçao and Bonaire (as well as the neighboring island of Aruba). This creole descends from Portuguese and West African languages with a strong admixture of Dutch, plus subsequent lexical contributions from Spanish and English.


After a decades-long debate, English and Papiamentu have been made official languages alongside Dutch in early March 2007. [2][3][4] [5] Legislation is produced in Dutch but parliamentary debate is in Papiamentu or English, depending on the island. Due to the islands' proximity to South America, Spanish is becoming increasingly known and used throughout the archipelago.


The majority of the population are followers of the Christian faith, mostly Roman Catholic. Curaçao also hosts a sizeable group of followers of the Jewish faith, descendants of a Portuguese group of Sephardic Jews that arrived from Amsterdam and Brazil in 1654.


Most Netherlands Antilleans are Dutch citizens and this status permits and encourages the young and university-educated to emigrate to the Netherlands. This exodus is considered to be to the islands' detriment as it creates a brain drain. On the other hand, immigrants from the Dominican Republic, Haiti, the Anglophone Caribbean and Colombia have increased their presence in recent years.





A Bulawaya dance in Curaçao.The origins of the population and location of the islands give the Netherlands Antilles a mixed culture.


Tourism and overwhelming media presence from the United States has increased the regional United States influence. On all the islands, the holiday of Carnival is, like in many Caribbean and Latin American countries, an important one. Festivities include "jump-up" parades with beautifully colored costumes, floats, and live bands as well as beauty contests and other competitions. Carnival on the islands also includes a middle-of-the-night j'ouvert (juvé) parade that ends at sunrise with the burning of a straw King Momo, cleansing the island of sins and bad luck.


See also: Music of Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles, Culture of St. Martin, and Culture of Saba


Miscellaneous topics

Unlike the metropolitan Netherlands, same-sex marriages cannot be performed here, but those performed in other jurisdictions are recognized.


arten-St. Martin - Consensus, but no date set for new status

^ Results of Dec 15 2008 Round Table Conference

^ Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (2005-11-26). "›Closing statement of the first Round Table Conference". Retrieved on 2008-01-21.  

^ Radio Netherlands (2006-10-12). "Caribbean islands become Dutch municipalities". Retrieved on 2007-02-02.  

^ "Curaçao and St Maarten to have country status". 2006-11-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.  

^ Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (2006-11-29). "Curacao rejects final agreement". Retrieved on 2007-02-02.  

^ Curaçao verwerpt slotakkoord

^ The Daily Herald St. Maarten (2007-07-09). "Curaçao IC ratifies November 2 accord". Retrieved on 2007-07-13.  

^ Chavez Says Holland Plans to Help US Invade Venezuela

^ Radio Netherlands (2006-10-12). "Caribbean islands become Dutch municipalities". Retrieved on 2006-10-21.  

^ The provision reads:


Article 311 shall be repealed. A new Article 311a shall be inserted, with the wording of Article 299(2), first subparagraph, and Article 299(3) to (6); the text shall be amended as follows:


(e) the following new paragraph shall be added at the end of the Article:

"6. The European Council may, on the initiative of the Member State concerned, adopt a decision amending the status, with regard to the Union, of a Danish, French or Netherlands country or territory referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2. The European Council shall act unanimously after consulting the Commission."


—Treaty of Lisbon Article 2, point 293


[edit] External links

Find more about Netherlands Antilles on Wikipedia's sister projects:

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 Learning resources from WikiversityGovernment - Main governmental site

Chief of State and Cabinet Members

Antillenhuis - Cabinet of the Netherlands Antilles' Plenipotentiary Minister in the Netherlands

Central Bank of the Netherlands Antilles

General information

Netherlands Antilles entry at The World Factbook

Netherlands Antilles from UCB Libraries GovPubs

Netherlands Antilles at the Open Directory Project

Wikimedia Atlas of Netherlands Antilles

Netherlands Antilles travel guide from Wikitravel




[show]v • d • eDutch Empire


[hide] Former colonies


Africa Arguin Island · Cape Colony · Delagoa Bay (Maputo Bay) · Dutch Gold Coast · Gorée · Mauritius · Dutch Angola


Americas Dutch Brazil · Dutch Guiana (Suriname) · Guyana ( Berbice · Essequibo · Demerara ) · French Guiana · New Netherland · Tobago · Virgin Islands


Asia · Oceania Dutch Ceylon · Dutch India · Deshima (Dejima) · Dutch East Indies · Kharg Island · Dutch Malacca · Netherlands New Guinea · Dutch Formosa


Arctic Smeerenburg


See also Dutch East India Company · Dutch West India Company




[hide] Present dependencies


Kingdom of the

Netherlands Netherlands Antilles · Aruba




[show]v • d • eOutlying territories of European countries


Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe (see inclusion criteria for further information)


Denmark Greenland


France Clipperton Island · French Guiana · French Polynesia · Guadeloupe · Martinique · Mayotte · New Caledonia · Réunion · Saint Barthélemy · Saint Martin · Saint Pierre and Miquelon · Wallis and Futuna


French Southern and

Antarctic Lands Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean (Bassas da India • Europa Island • Glorioso Islands • Juan de Nova Island • Tromelin Island) · Île Amsterdam · Île Saint-Paul · Crozet Islands · Kerguelen Islands · Adélie Land



Italy Pantelleria · Pelagie Islands (Lampedusa • Lampione • Linosa)


Netherlands Aruba · Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire • Curaçao • Saba • Sint Maarten • Sint Eustatius)


Norway Bouvet Island · Peter I Island · Queen Maud Land


Portugal Azores · Madeira


Russia Russian Far East · Khabomai Rocks · Kuril Islands · Kunashir · Ratmanov Island · Sakhalin · Shikotan  · Siberia


Spain Canary Islands · Plazas de soberanía (Ceuta · Melilla · Isla Perejil • Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera • Peñón de Alhucemas • Islas Chafarinas)



Kingdom Anguilla · Ascension Island · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Cayman Islands · Falkland Islands · Montserrat · St. Helena · Tristan da Cunha · Turks and Caicos Islands · British Antarctic Territory · British Indian Ocean Territory · Pitcairn Islands · South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands


[hide]v • d • eCountries and territories of the Caribbean


[show] Sovereign states


Commonwealth Realms Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Grenada · Jamaica · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines


Commonwealth republics Dominica · Trinidad and Tobago


Other republics Cuba · Dominican Republic · Haiti




[show] Dependencies and other territories by parent country


United Kingdom Anguilla · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Cayman Islands · Montserrat · Turks and Caicos Islands


Netherlands Aruba · Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire · Curaçao · Saba · Sint Maarten · Sint Eustatius)


France Guadeloupe · Martinique · St. Barthélemy · St. Martin


United States Navassa Island · Petrel Islands · Puerto Rico · Serranilla Bank · U.S. Virgin Islands




[show]v • d • eCountries and dependencies of North America


Several nations listed here straddle both North and South America or can also be considered Caribbean.


Sovereign states Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Canada · Costa Rica · Cuba · Dominica · Dominican Republic · El Salvador · Grenada · Guatemala · Haiti · Honduras · Jamaica · Mexico · Nicaragua · Panama · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Trinidad and Tobago · United States


Dependencies Denmark Greenland


France Guadeloupe · Martinique · Saint Barthélemy · Saint Martin · Saint Pierre and Miquelon · Clipperton


Netherlands Aruba · Netherlands Antilles


United Kingdom Anguilla · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Cayman Islands · Montserrat · Turks and Caicos Islands


United States Navassa Island · Petrel Islands · Puerto Rico · Serranilla Bank · U.S. Virgin Islands



[show]v • d • eCaribbean Community (CARICOM)


Members Antigua and Barbuda · Bahamas1 · Barbados · Belize · Dominica · Grenada · Guyana · Haiti1 · Jamaica · Montserrat2 · St. Kitts and Nevis · St. Lucia · St. Vincent and the Grenadines · Suriname · Trinidad and Tobago  


Associate members Anguilla · Bermuda · Cayman Islands · British Virgin Islands · Turks and Caicos Islands


Observers Aruba · Colombia · Dominican Republic · Mexico · Netherlands Antilles · Puerto Rico · Venezuela


1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME).   2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME.



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Categories: Lesser Antilles | Netherlands Antilles | Kingdom of the Netherlands | Special territories of the European Union | Dutch-speaking countries | States and territories established in 1954 | Island countries

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